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Wohlers Report 2024

Analysis. Trends. Forecasts. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing State of the Industry.


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The 29th annual report takes a deep dive into the growth of the additive manufacturing (AM) industry, with insights from 10 industry sectors.

Wohlers Report 2024 features the latest information you need to stay informed and expand your knowledge of the constantly evolving AM industry.

Gain a thorough understanding of AM and applications from pre- to post-processing, and learn about the latest technologies, applications, and trends from top industry experts

Receive industry intelligence you cannot find anywhere else from a worldwide network of experts, including service providers, AM system manufacturers, and producers of third-party materials.

Novices and industry veterans alike use the Wohlers Report to improve processes, make informed decisions, and expand their footprint.

Interested in multiple user licenses and/or expert phone consultations?

Wohlers Report 2024 Enterprise: Ask about our enterprise option if more than 5 people at your organization would like to access the report.

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Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Remarks from ASTM International
  • A note from Terry Wohlers
  • About the Authors and Editors
  • Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Conversions


  • Focus of this report
  • Introduction to AM and 3D printing
    • Processes and feedstock
    • Putting AM to work
  • History of AM
    • 1960s to the modern era
    • March 2023 to March 2024
  • Industry Survey
  • Applications
    • Prototyping
    • Tooling
    • Final part production
    • Additional applications
  • Industries
    • Aerospace
    • Medical
    • Dentistry
    • Automotive
    • Consumer products
    • Education and academic research
    • Power and energy
    • Government and military
    • Architectural models
    • Additive construction
    • Other industries
  • Myths and misconceptions
    • AM will replace conventional manufacturing
    • Complexity is free
    • AM is a “push button” process
    • Most AM systems are similar
    • AM is environmentally friendly
    • Few materials are available for AM
    • Metal AM produces parts inexpensively
    • AM parts are inferior to conventional parts
    • Every home will have a 3D printer


  • Processes
    • Material extrusion
    • Vat photopolymerization
    • Powder bed fusion
    • Material jetting
    • Binder jetting
    • Directed energy deposition
    • Sheet lamination
  • Materials
    • Polymers
    • New polymer products
    • Polymer pricing
    • Metals
    • New metal powders
    • Metal powder pricing
    • Composites materials
    • Hybrid materials
    • Materials for metal casting
    • Ceramics and other materials
  • Third-party material producers
    • Open vs. closed material business models
    • Third-party producers
  • Materials database
    • Materials by process
    • Material producers and products


  • Revenue from AM worldwide
    • Products and services
    • Growth percentages
    • System manufacturers
    • R&D spending
    • Unit sales
    • Systems sold by region
    • Cumulative sales
    • Metal AM systems
  • AM material sales
    • Photopolymers
    • Polymer powders
    • Filaments
    • Metals
  • Service providers
    • Primary service market
    • Service provider survey
    • Contributing service providers
    • Survey results
    • Pre- and post-processing
    • Most profitable AM processes
    • Most profitable material
    • Revenue growth
    • Comments from service providers
  • Investment in publicly traded companies
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Corporate investments
  • CAD solid modeling


  • Benefits of AM
    • Biomimicry and generative design
    • Custom and limited product manufacturing
    • Digital inventories and part consolidation
    • Elimination of tooling
    • Optimized structures
    • Reduced lead time and on-demand manufacturing
    • Waste reduction and sustainability
  • Design for additive manufacturing
    • AM is not a replacement technology
  • Economic benefits of DfAM
    • Calculating part cost
  • DfAM strategies
    • Lightweighting
    • Support minimization
    • Minimizing residual stress and distortion
    • Improving surface finish
    • Part consolidation
    • Mass customization
    • Product performance improvements
  • Software
    • 3D scan-processing software
    • Design and engineering
    • Performance optimization
    • Part preparation
    • Print preparation
    • Build preparation
    • Process monitoring
    • Manufacturing execution systems
    • Medical image processing
  • Process monitoring of metal powder bed fusion
    • Aconity3D
    • Addiguru
    • Addup
    • AMiquam
    • EOS
    • GE Additive
    • Interspectral
    • LAMQC
    • Layer Metrics
    • Manufacturing Demonstration Facility
    • Open Additive
    • Oqton
    • Phase3D
    • Renishaw
    • Sigma Additive Solutions
    • SLM Solutions
    • Stratonics
    • Velo3D
    • Zeiss
    • Outlook
  • Post-processing
    • Polymer post-processing steps
    • Metal post-processing steps
  • AM part inspection
  • Cost and challenges
    • Operating costs
    • Cost justification
    • Machine throughput
    • Metal part production cost considerations
    • Safety considerations
    • Facility considerations
    • Additional equiptment
    • Qualification and quality
  • Educating designers
  • Scaling AM into production
    • Prerequisites
    • QMS and qualified machines
    • Scaling the value stream
    • Fixed processes
    • Automation and the digital thread


  • Installations by country
  • Africa
    • South Africa
  • The Americas
    • Argentina
    • Brazil
    • Canada
    • United Sates
  •  Asia/Pacific
    • China
    • Japan
    • South Korea
    • Singapore
    • Taiwan
  • Australasia
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • Europe
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Czech Republic
    • Denmark
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Hungary
    • Italy
    • Netherlands
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Turkey
    • United Kingdom
  • Middle East
    • Egypt
    • Israel


  • Trends
  • Patents
  • Consortia and collaborations
    • ASTM AM Center of Excellence
    • America Makes
    • Fraunhofer
    • Women in 3D Printing
    • Mobility Goes Additive
    • Partnerships
    • Other groups and associations
  • AM standards
    • ASTM Committee F42
    • ISO/TC 261
    • AM Standardization Collaborative
  • AM activities at NASA
  • AM in the U.S. Department of Defense
  • U.S. government-sponsored R&D
    • National Science Foundation
    • DOD, DOE, and DOC
    • National Institutes of Health
  • U.S. national laboratories
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    • Sandia National Laboratories
  • Government-sponsored R&D in Europe
  • Academic activities and capabilities
    • Research innovations
    • The Americas
    • Asia/Pacific
    • Europe, Middle East, and Africa
    • Research institutes with AM capabilities


  • Investment and strategic shifts
    • Advancements and market dynamics
    • The predominant challenge: production costs
  • Outlook
    • Asia
    • Growth
  • Emerging opportunities
    • Artificial intelligence
    • Optimism
  • Emerging applications
    • Food
    • Pharmaceuticals
    • Other applications
  • Workforce development
  • Sustainability and a circular economy
    • Environmental benefits documented using CO2 calculation
    • Increased use of sustainable materials
  • Landscape of AM startups
  • Startups and early-stage investments
  • New AM companies
  • The future of AM
    • Automobile industry
    • Challenges
    • What else can we expect?
  • Final comments


  • Asia/Pacific
    • Aspect
    • Boston Micro Fabrication
    • Bright Laser Technologies
    • DMG Mori
    • Eplus3D
    • Farsoon
    • Mimaki
    • Tongtai
    • UnionTech
    • XYZprinting
    • ZRapid
  • Germany
    • Arburg
    • BigRep
    • EOS
    • Nikon SLM Solutions
    • Trumpf
    • Voxeljet
  • Other companies in Europe and the Middle East
    • Additive Industries
    • AddUp
    • Admatec
    • DWS
    • Lithoz
    • Massivit
    • Prodways
    • Renishaw
    • Sinterit
    • Sisma
    • Stratasys
    • XJet
  • U.S.
    • 3D Systems
    • Carbon
    • Desktop Metal
    • Essentium
    • Formlabs
    • GE Additive
    • HP
    • Markforged
    • Nexa3D
    • Optomec


  • Appendix A: Glossary of terms
  • Appendix B: System manufacturer matrix
  • Appendix C: Metal AM comparison matrix
  • Appendix D: 3D scanning systems

Report Development Team

Wohlers Report 2024 was developed by a dynamic global team of authors located in five countries. This group diligently gathered, scrutinized, and structured data and information from around the world. They also conducted thorough research and wrote many sections of the report. Essential to the team’s success were editorial, analytics, and project management professionals who contributed to the report’s development.

Principal authors:

Olaf Diegel, Wohlers Associates (New Zealand)
Joseph Kowen, Wohlers Associates (Israel)
Terry Wohlers, Wohlers Associates (U.S.)

Associate authors:

Ray Huff, Wohlers Associates (U.S.)
Ismail Fidan, Tennessee Tech University (U.S.)

Editorial team:

Randall Newton
Clare Scott
Jenny van Rensburg

Analytics and Project Management:

Jiekang Haw
Majdi Jamshid
Jielin Ng

The following 100 individuals and organizations in 35 countries contributed to Wohlers Report 2024 and served as important sources for information.

Amy Alexander Mayo Clinic U.S.
Henrique Almeida Polytechnic Institute of Leiria Portugal
Fahmi Al-Shawwa Immensa United Arab Emirates
Anton Aulbers TNO Netherlands
Nicolae Balc Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Romania
Kazi Md Masum Billah University of Clear Lake – Houston U.S.
Klas Boivie SINTEF Norway
Kjeld von Bommel TNO Netherlands
Eric Bono Amaero Advanced Materials & Manufacturing U.S.
Gerrie Booysen Central University of Technology South Africa
David Bourell University of Texas at Austin U.S.
Brittany Branch Sandia National Laboratories U.S.
Milan Brandt RMIT University Australia
Stefan Braun KSB SE & Co. KGaA Germany
Stefanie Brickwede Deutsche Bahn Germany
David Bullock Rapid 3D South Africa
Ed Cant The Manufacturing Technology Centre UK
Jim Carney Sandia National Laboratories U.S.
Amanda Cruchley The Manufacturing Technology Centre UK
Deon de Beer Central University of Technology South Africa
Brian Drab William Blair U.S.
Igor Drstvenšek University of Maribor Slovenia
Ben Dutton The Manufacturing Technology Centre UK
Khalid Abd Elghany CMRDI Egypt
Thomas Feldhausen Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.
Ismail Fidan Tennessee Technological University U.S.
Jonas Forup Danish AM Hub Denmark
Matthew Friedell Colorado Air National Guard U.S.
Devon Hagedörn Hansen HH-Industries South Africa
Shamil Hargovan STS Capital Partners Canada
Chaw Sing Ho National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Cluster Singapore
Seyed Hosseini RISE Research Institute of Sweden Sweden
Tyler Hutin William Blair U.S.
Jeng-Ywan Jeng National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Taiwan
Sarah Jordan Skuld LLC U.S.
Amalie Kaysen Danish AM Hub Denmark
Brandon Lane National Institute of Standards and Technology U.S.
Kelvin Loke National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Cluster Singapore
Henry Ma STS Capital Partners Canada
Bill Macy Macy Consulting U.S.
Giorgio Magistrelli CASTRA Bulgaria
Julien Magnien Sirris Belgium
Stephan Mansour ASTM Interntional U.S.
Simon Marriott GoProto Australia
Farai Taruvinga Mashambanhaka Africa Engineering Company Zimbabwe
Manyalibo Matthews Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S.
Emilia Mazgajczyk Wroclaw University of Science and Technology Poland
Ruaridh Mitchinson The Manufacturing Technology Centre UK
Kristin Mulherin Women in  3D Printing U.S.
Bernhard Müller Fraunhofer IWU Germany
Hideaki Oba 3D Printing Industrial Technology Association Japan
John Obielodan University of Wisconsin – Platteville U.S.
Miklós Odrobina EBK Hungary
Melissa Orme Boeing U.S.
Charles Overy LGM U.S.
Emiliano Pagani University of Buenos Aires Argentina
Keun Park Seoul National University of Science and Technology South Korea
Nick Pearce Alexander Daniels Global U.S.
Joris Peels 3DPrint.com Netherlands
Burak Pekcan 90 Germany
Pat Picariello ASTM Interntional U.S.
Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Germany
Kateřina Podaná Klastr Mechatronika Czech Republic
Brian Post Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.
Alex Plotkowski Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.
Michele Pressacco LimaCorporate Italy
Michael Raphael Direct Dimensions U.S.
Sarah Rimini Ricoh U.S.
Elisa Salatin LimaCorporate Italy
Mika Salmi Aalto University Finland
Fabio Sant’Ana Farcco Tecnologia Brazil
Steffen Schmidt Danish AM Hub Denmark
Alexander Schmoeckel AM Ventures Management Germany
Randy Schunk Sandia National Laboratories U.S.
Luke Scime Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.
Christian Seidel Fraunhofer IGCV Germany
Mohsen Seifi ASTM Interntional U.S.
Jayeeta Sengupta TNO Netherlands
Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva Renato Archer Information Technology Center Brazil
Aidan Skoyles Finnegan LLP U.S.
Kinga Skrzek Future Industry Platform Poland
John Slotwinski Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory U.S.
Zackary Snow Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.
Chris Spadaccini Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S.
Adriaan Spierings Swissmem Switzerland
Jürgen Stampfl Vienna University of Technology Austria
Riccardo Toninato LimaCorporate Italy
Nora Touré Women in  3D Printing U.S.
Ehsan Toyserkani University of Waterloo Canada
Andrew Triantaphyllou MakeAmazing Greece
Joel Vasco Polytechnic Institute of Leiria Portugal
Wilson Vesga The Manufacturing Technology Centre UK
Tomáš Vít Klastr Mechatronika Czech Republic
Benoit Verquin Cetim France
John Vickers NASA U.S.
Neri Volpato Federal University of Technology – Paraná Brazil
Kitty Wang 3D Science Valley China
Martin White ASTM Interntional U.S.
John Wilczynski America Makes U.S.
Naiara Zubizarreta ADDIMAT Spain

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  • Prevent gaps and duplication of work in a dynamic, fast-paced technology space
  • Identify challenges that can be solved with technological improvement

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