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AM in India

September 15, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,event — Terry Wohlers @ 18:11

For years, additive manufacturing and 3D printing have been put to work in India for concept modeling, design validation, prototyping, and some tooling. Organizations in the U.S., Germany, and other countries are pushing hard to adopt AM for production applications, with India showing similar interest. AM is the subject of a session at the 11th NASSCOM Design & Engineering Summit on September 26-27, 2019 in Bangalore. I’m excited about participating in this important event.

In 2018, AM in India was dominated by growing interest in metal AM systems, according to Mukesh Agarwala, managing director of 3D Product Development (3DPD) of Bangalore, India’s largest AM service provider. Agarwala contributes a summary on AM in India for publication in the annual Wohlers Report. He said that Indian organizations in the oil/gas and IT sectors are currently evaluating ways in which AM might help their businesses.

AM machines, materials, and services in India in 2018 were an estimated $100+ million, according to Agarwala. While this is not insignificant, it represents only about 1% of the global AM total of $9.8 billion, according to Wohlers Report 2019. Even so, the opportunity in India is vast. As more educational, research, and corporate entities understand the many benefits and competitive advantages that AM offers, adoption will increase to become significant.

Elastic and Rigid Behavior in Single-Material Parts

September 9, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE — Terry Wohlers @ 14:41

Note: Ray Huff, associate engineer at Wohlers Associates, authored the following.

The elastic behavior of polymers, coupled with the design freedom of AM, allows designers to produce some very interesting products. A single-material part can have rigid and springy features, all driven by design. A good example is a small catapult on display in our office. The coil around the main shaft provides the spring force for operating the catapult, although both parts are made of PA12. The image at the left shows the catapult loaded and ready to launch. The one at the right shows the catapult after launching the ball. Notice the coil spring and locking mechanism.

Recent applications have developed with this principle in mind, many using elastomers to amplify this behavior. An example is the latticed helmet liners developed by Riddell and Carbon. Using sophisticated software, designers produce thicker lattice members and meshes where more rigid behavior is needed. Thinner lattice members alloy more flex and shock absorption in other areas. Similar functionality is being developed by HP for use with TPU on its new Jet Fusion 5200 series machines. Lattice structures and hybrid flexible/rigid components are a relatively new frontier, but we expect to see more of these types of products in the near future.

Dave Bourell Honored

August 26, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,event — Terry Wohlers @ 10:55

Note: Ray Huff, associate engineer at Wohlers Associates, authored the following.

Two weeks ago, Wohlers Associates attended the 30th annual Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium in Austin, Texas. The event brought together more than 700 attendees from 25 countries to present and discuss research on additive manufacturing (AM). Dave Bourell, PhD, of the University of Texas at Austin opened the event by recalling the nascent stages of AM 30 years ago and the many contributors to the technology since that time.

Terry Wohlers, introduced as the “Indiana Jones” of AM, continued this discussion in a keynote presentation by highlighting key developments since 1987. He then called Bourell back to the stage to name him an honorary associate consultant of Wohlers Associates. Bourell is only the third in the company’s 32-year history to be given this distinction. His contribution to the research community and AM as a whole is far-reaching and inspiring. Bourell continues to serve as the principal organizer of the SFF Symposium. He is also one of three associate authors of Wohlers Report 2019.

Bourell was given a special Wohlers Associates lapel pin, which is shown in the previous image. The pin was 3D-printed in titanium by the Centre for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing at Central University of Technology in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Design Rules for AM

August 11, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE — Terry Wohlers @ 09:57

Little by little, companies are learning that it can be very different to design for additive manufacturing (DfAM). To make AM economical for production quantities, DfAM is usually necessary. As costs of the machines, materials, and post-processing are driven downward over time, this may change in some instances. For the foreseeable future, DfAM is not only useful, it’s a requirement.

When considering DfAM, we often think of using topology optimization, lattice structures, and other methods to reduce material and weight and potentially improve part functionality. Just as important are design rules and guidelines to reduce trial ‘n error among engineers and designers. This information usually comes from experience and tribal knowledge among very few at a company.

The previous guitar stand was designed by Olaf Diegel, an associate consultant and DfAM instructor at Wohlers Associates. The stand is cleverly designed to fold and unfold, as shown. The large hinge depicted at the left requires a surface gap of 0.4 mm (0.016 inch) for it to operate so that it is not too tight or lose. A smaller hinge, shown in the center, requires a gap of 0.3 mm (0.012 inch) because the rotating surface area is much less. Making the gap larger would result in a hinge that’s too lose.

Olaf has learned many rules and guidelines from his extensive experience with DfAM, AM, and post-processing parts. They often differ from process to process and material to material. Many of these methods of DfAM will be discussed at a special three-day DfAM course in Frisco, Colorado next month. If you’re transitioning to AM for production applications, you or your colleagues may want to attend this training. It could save your organization months or longer and help you determine if/when a part or assembly is a good candidate to produce by AM.

Selecting Parts for AM

July 28, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 16:26

Note: Ray Huff, associate engineer at Wohlers Associates, authored the following.

Adopting additive manufacturing (AM) for serial production is one of the biggest and most interesting recent trends in industry. Many companies want to know the secret of how to choose parts that are a good fit. Selecting the right parts is very specific to the process, material, product, and market, yet some overarching guidelines help in the process. For an in-depth discussion of these guidelines, and a handful of recent industry success stories, see our article titled DfAM insight: How to choose candidate products for AM production applications in Metal AM magazine.

Knowing the hallmarks of the AM process is key to succeeding in production. Low part quantities can be an easy win for small-batch production. As material and operating costs are driven downward, AM is expanding to larger production quantities. In a recent visit to Avid Product Development of Loveland, Colorado, I saw parts being produced on two HP Jet Fusion 4210 machines to fill an order of 100,000 pieces. Such quantities were unheard of in AM a few years ago. Parts produced in this volume are generally a few cubic inches or less. Their complex shape and features make them difficult to injection mold or process using another method.

Mechanical and functional requirements must be satisfied with the relatively narrow selection of materials available for AM. If new designs can reduce tooling, part numbers, assembly, and material costs, AM can become an excellent alternative to conventional manufacturing. Saving material, alone, can help make the business case for a high-cost titanium alloy, for example.

AM provides the opportunity to deliver parts quickly, although some regulatory requirements can slow things significantly. In heavily regulated markets such as aerospace, experience at certifying parts for AM is key. GE has been active at this longer than most, and it has put more than 500 different parts into production with AM, according to a recent conversation I had with Mohammad Ehteshami, former CEO of GE Additive. Other companies are working hard to keep pace. Honeywell has set a goal to have 250 parts in production by AM before the end of this year. To meet this goal, choosing the best parts for AM is crucial.

World Economic Forum

June 18, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,event,future — Terry Wohlers @ 10:49

I attended a first-ever 3D printing and additive manufacturing event organized and hosted by the World Economic Forum’s Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in San Francisco. The June 3, 2019 workshop, titled 3D Printing and Trade Logistics: Impact on Global Value Chains, involved 18 invited company executives, government officials, and others from many countries.

The World Economic Forum is an independent and non-profit international organization that engages political, business, and other leaders to shape global, regional, and industrial agendas. It serves as a platform to bring together public and private sector stakeholders to tackle global issues. In this context, the workshop was organized in two phases. The first explored significant issues that may be raised by the proliferation of 3D printing, followed by ways in which they might be addressed with many working together.

Venkataraman “Sundar” Sundareswaran of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corp. did a fine job at organizing the workshop. He is currently serving as a fellow at the World Economic Forum to bring 3D printing to the forefront. The group of 18 participants split into three workgroups on three separate occasions to identify and prioritize major issues, followed by the generation of ideas for addressing them.

“Workforce displacement and skill gaps” was identified as the top issue. University and industry training, coupled with retraining programs and government incentives, were named as likely solutions. “Governance of IP, legal issues, cyber, trade, and customs” was ranked as the second biggest issue. Among the possible solutions: national strategies, new laws, technology, and self-regulation. “Supply chain disruption” was determined as the third most important issue. The group cited new taxation models from government and standards development, principally by industry, as ways to address it.

The next challenge and opportunity for the World Economic Forum is to tackle these issues. A good foundation has been set. I’m looking forward to staying engaged and helping however we can to advance the development and adoption of 3D printing technology worldwide.

DfAM in Germany

May 18, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,education,future — Terry Wohlers @ 05:33

Design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) is not easy. That’s why we have been offering DfAM courses since 2015. Our first two were for NASA Marshal Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. We have since conducted courses in other parts of the U.S., as well as in Australia, Belgium, Canada, and South Africa. Our most recent course was held with Protolabs 2.5 weeks ago near Raleigh, North Carolina. It could not have gone much better.

Our first DfAM course in Germany will occur next month in cooperation with Airbus and ZAL Center of Applied Aeronautical Research. ZAL is hosting the event in Hamburg and we are very excited about it. Already, people from many countries in Europe and North America have registered to attend.

Other DfAM courses are being planned. Our second annual Design at Elevation DfAM course is September 2019 in Frisco, Colorado. Elevation: 2,774 meters (9,097 feet). Attend the course in Hamburg, but if you cannot, visit the beautiful Rocky Mountains of Colorado in September—the most colorful month of the year.

3D-Printed Figurines

May 4, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 14:20

3D scanning and printing tools make it possible to produce color figurines of action figures, pets, our kids, and a lot more. Prior to our daughter’s wedding last July, we decided to produce a custom cake topper of her and her fiancé. Our company has worked with 3D scanning in the past, but we had not dealt with this level of detail in some time.

The following images show the 3D prints from the scan data. Those in the processing tray at the right were produced in photopolymer on a Mimaki 3DUJ-553 color 3D printing system. The others were produced in a gypsum-based material on a color binder-jetting system owned and operated by LGM.

Many contributed to the effort. An amusing summary of the work was presented in an excellent article published in the May 2019 issue of Mechanical Engineering magazine from ASME. My sincere thanks to the following people and companies for their help with this project:

Thanks also to our daughter, Heather, and son-in-law, Bayne, for going along with the idea and dressing up twice for both sets of 3D scans.

Factors Contributing to AM Growth

April 20, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 08:32

The additive manufacturing (AM) industry came within about $200 million from producing $10 billion in products and services last year. This is based on research for Wohlers Report 2019. What’s more, it grew by nearly 62% over the past two years. What’s driving this impressive growth?

Many factors, working in harmony with one another, are contributing to strong AM growth worldwide. Among them are a renewed focus on:

  • Design for additive manufacturing (DfAM)
  • Education and training
  • Post-processing and post-process automation
  • Materials diversification
  • Custom products and low-volume manufacturing
  • Partnerships and collaborations
  • Startup companies
  • Viable supply chains
  • Data, security, and interconnectivity
  • Investment in applications
  • Corporate centers of excellence

These and other factors are discussed in detail in Part 8 of Wohlers Report 2019.

U.S. Comeback in AM

April 7, 2019

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 15:20

Is the U.S. making a comeback in additive manufacturing? Some might question whether the U.S. had fallen back in its position. In the 2000s, the U.S. definitely lost ground in a number of areas to the likes of China and Germany. One area is in the production of industrial AM systems, which are those that sell for more than $5,000. Consider that 52 manufacturers—32 Chinese and 20 German—produced and sold industrial AM systems in 2018, according to our research for Wohlers Report 2019, which was published less than two weeks ago.

The number of companies producing industrial AM systems may be an interesting metric, but it is only one of several used to measure a country’s position in AM. Others, such as the adoption and use of AM, are arguably more important, but difficult to measure. Due to widespread and hard-to-trace growth in many regions of the world, data is not as forthcoming as it was 10+ years ago. Even so, the U.S. is believed to be home to more than one-third of all industrial AM systems. This compares to 10.6% in China and 8.3% in Germany, as shown in the following chart. It represents cumulative installations from 1988 through 2018.

The number of manufacturers of industrial AM systems grew by 50% to 33 last year in the U.S., which was a surprise to some. Also, we believe the U.S. is at or near the top in R&D related to AM hardware, software, applications, and services, compared to other countries. Whether one considers the number of system manufacturers, the adoption of systems, or R&D spending, the U.S. is in a solid position with competitive nations worldwide.

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