July 20, 2014

Stelarc

Stelarc is a performance artist and designer that has lived much of his life in a Melbourne, Australia suburb. He was born in Cyprus as Stelios Arcadiou and changed his name in 1972. His work focuses mostly on the belief that the human body is obsolete, but its capacity can be enhanced through technology.

I first met Stelarc in 2005 at the VRAP 3D printing event in Leiria, Portugal. Travel prevented me from attending his presentation, although he was kind enough to provide me with an eye-opening set of printed images and a DVD. Many of his technical developments and works of art are unusual—some of which you’d have to see to believe. Entering “Stelarc” into Google and clicking Images will give you an interesting sampling.

I had the pleasure of meeting and talking with Stelarc again nine days ago in Brisbane, Australia. He gave an intriguing presentation at a one-day 3D printing event organized by Griffith University. People in the audience of 170 were visibly stunned by his work. An example was the 2007 video footage showing a team of surgeons constructing an ear on his left forearm.

stelarc

The skin was suctioned over a scaffold, which was made of porous biomaterial. Tissue in-growth and vascularization then followed over a period of six months. This resulted in a relief of an ear. The helix needs to be surgically lifted to create an ear flap and a soft ear lobe will be grown using his stem-cells. A small microphone will then be inserted and the ear electronically augmented for Internet connectivity. Thus, the third ear will result in a mobile listening device for people in other places.

I was especially impressed by Stelarc’s knowledge and understanding of biomedicine, robotics, prosthetics, and 3D printing. The content that he presented and discussed and the questions he answered showed that he is not only an artist, but a designer and maker of complex machines and systems. In recent years, he has used 3D printing extensively to support much of his work.

July 3, 2014

AM Demand Will Exceed Supply

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Future — Terry Wohlers @ 09:43

The following was originally published July 3, 2014. It was updated and republished July 9, 2014.

Note: The following was authored by Tim Caffrey, senior consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Over the past decade, several major trends have emerged in the additive manufacturing (AM) industry. Two of them are 1) the rapid growth of metals, and 2) a marked increase in production applications. Yet, outside of dental copings and acetabular (hip cup) implants, these two key developments have not converged in a significant way. That changed in May 2013 when GE Aviation announced its plan to manufacture all fuel nozzles for its LEAP engine using metal AM. With 19 fuel nozzles per engine, production is scheduled to reach 40,000–45,000 units annually in six or seven years.

The announcement was one of the most significant milestones in the history of the AM industry. A major corporation publically declared its confidence in AM for a demanding production application in a hostile and critical operating environment. At the same time, this development created a new concern: Will supply keep up with demand? According to Greg Morris of GE Aviation, the fuel nozzle production would require about 60 systems working around the clock using today’s AM metal technology.

A July 1 story on the German news website Wirtschafts Woche reported that GE Aviation intends to order 100 metal systems from EOS. An official announcement is expected during the Farnborough International Airshow later this month. We have since learned that this story is inaccurate. According to GE Aviation, no order has been placed. A vendor has not been selected and the number of systems to be ordered has not been determined. While unit sales of metal AM systems increased 75.8% last year, according to our research for Wohlers Report 2014, production capacity at AM system manufacturers is still relatively low. An order of this magnitude would certainly jolt EOS’s production capability and tax its resources. It will also produce a ripple effect for other metal AM system manufacturers.

One can assume that the GE fuel nozzle is the first of many metal production parts launched, and more from the aerospace, medical, dental, jewelry, and (eventually) automotive sectors will follow. Can the AM industry meet this demand? We believe that the metal AM supply chain—consisting of system manufacturers, material suppliers, and certified service providers—will not be able to keep pace with demand.

June 22, 2014

Growth of Metal AM Systems

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 11:05

Note: The following was excerpted from “Part 4: Industry Growth” in Wohlers Report 2014.

Additive manufacturing (AM) systems for metal parts are increasing in popularity worldwide, as shown in the following chart. Wohlers Associates has been tracking this market segment for 14 years, but this is only the second time to publish metal-based AM machine unit sales by year in Wohlers Report 2014. As the chart indicates, 348 of these machines were sold in 2013, compared to 198 in 2012—growth of an impressive 75.8%.

metal

The chart shows continued growth through 2006, followed by a multi-year slump. Much of the growth and subsequent decline were due to ExOne’s Imagen dental systems, which made gold copings for crowns and bridges. ExOne made a big push with this system until 2007, when it was pulled from the market. It is believed the company stopped offering the machine due to the increased price of gold and other factors related to cost and market acceptance.

June 7, 2014

AM Industry Growth

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 11:10

Excerpt: The following are the opening paragraphs of “Part 4: Industry Growth” in Wohlers Report 2014.

Growth has accelerated over the past four years as an increasing number of organizations adopt additive manufacturing (AM) products and services. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of worldwide revenues produced by all products and services over the past 25 years is an impressive 27%. The CAGR for the past three years (2011–2013) was 32.3%.

Unit sales of professional-grade, industrial systems strengthened in 2013 after a reasonably strong 2012. Revenues from products were especially strong in 2013 after a solid 2012. Growth of the services segment was good, but not nearly to the extent of product sales growth.

The average selling price of industrial AM systems increased for the third consecutive year. Meanwhile, 2013 growth in sales of low-cost personal 3D printers returned to the triple digits after a less vigorous 2012.

The AM industry has grown in the double digits for 17 of its 26 years. It continues to offer tremendous untapped potential, especially in custom and short-run part production. A product development and manufacturing company may spend 5–10% on design and prototyping for a given product development program. The remaining 90–95% is spent on production—a major reason why so many companies are aggressively pursuing this market segment.

AM system manufacturers and service providers are increasingly offering solutions for the production of parts that go into final products. However, this market segment comes with dramatically higher quality standards than those associated with modeling and prototyping applications. As it continues to develop, the demand for production parts from AM is expected to drive annual revenues to much higher levels. The 2013 figures were strengthened by this developing market segment.

May 25, 2014

Organic Modeling with SolidWorks

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE — Terry Wohlers @ 08:33

Note: The following was authored by Olaf Diegel, associate consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Most of my 3D-printed guitar designs include organic 3D shapes. By organic, I mean objects such as insects, animals, and flowers, with lots of flowing surfaces. Many people have asked me how I use SolidWorks, a popular CAD software product, to create these objects.

I begin by breaking down the entire design into as many separate features as I can. I do this whether the part is highly organic, or a regular geometric part. If one looks at a honey bee, for example, its body is a very complex shape that could be a serious challenge to model as a single feature. When breaking the bee’s body into the head, neck, waist, and main body, each individual part is much less complex than the whole, making the object simpler to model. (The head, for example, is further broken into the beak, eyes, etc.) I do it all as a single part, but first model the main body as a feature, than add the waist as the next feature, then the neck, and the head. I usually need a few simple fillets to blend the parts together. And, finally, I add the wings and legs, and voila, … it’s a bee.

new

Most 3D CAD software generally offers two approaches: solid modeling and surface modelling. Surface modelling typically allows easier control of complex surfaces, but also requires extra steps to make things that are directly 3D printable. Gaps or overlaps between surfaces can cause problems. When working on complex shapes, I usually use a combination of both solid and surface modeling. I’ll start the overall shape as a surface and, as soon as I have enough completed, I’ll convert it into a solid. From that point forward, I work on it as a solid.

When working on models that will be 3D printed, I try to keep in mind the level of detail that will be visible after 3D printing. If, for example, I create King Kong sitting on the Empire State Building that’s only 10 mm in height, most facial features will not be visible. Therefore, I don’t waste much time on those fine features, although it is easy to sometimes get carried away because it’s fun to add the details.

It is usually only after I have modeled something that I realize how I could have done it in a much easier way, so I often go back and do it again in a completely different way. Trying different ways of doing something, often several times with different methods, is how I learn the best ways of 3D modeling complex organic objects with SolidWorks.

May 11, 2014

Love Hate Relationship

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Life — Terry Wohlers @ 07:20

I have a “special relationship” with the Wohlers Report—a 3D printing and additive manufacturing industry study that we’ve published for 19 consecutive years. It started out as a relatively small effort, but it grew into something much bigger. To some degree, it has turned into the “tail wagging the dog,” a situation where a smaller part is controlling the whole of something.

I do not like the word “hate” and rarely use it, but it’s fitting for the title of this blog commentary. Perhaps “difficult” and “challenging” better describe February to May each year—the time when we create the new report. We “cut the fat” and try to make the report as lean and easy to read and digest as possible, with new and up-to-date information and data. With the recent changes in the industry, it has been a challenge. Our goal is always to be “short on words, but long on information,” when developing the report.

Now, for the love: The report was published 10 days ago, so we recently entered into the “love” phase. Already, we are enjoying the contents of the report and hope that our customers will do the same over the next 12 months. I refer to parts of the report daily for details that have been documented. We use it for many of our projects, investor consultations, and presentations. It helps us to articulate our thoughts and provide perspective in a way that would otherwise be difficult.

My sincere thanks to Wohlers Associates senior consultant and principal co-author Tim Caffrey for his tireless efforts associated with the new edition. I appreciate beyond words the work of the 70 co-authors, many of whom contributed a great deal of time, effort, and insight to the report. And, my thanks to the 82 service providers and 29 system manufacturers that shared detailed information that helped us create industry-wide totals in the form of charts, tables, and summaries. I genuinely hope that all of these people and companies have more of a “love” for this annual publication than anything else.

April 27, 2014

The Evolution of 3D-Printed Guitars

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 09:16

Note: The following was authored by Olaf Diegel, associate consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Just over two years ago, I started to design 3D-printed guitars to see if it could be done. I had been using additive manufacturing since the mid-1990s for the prototyping of products before taking them into production. I was amazed by how the technology had evolved over the past two decades. Because of my interest in music growing up, I decided to see if it had evolved to the point of being able to print an electric guitar—not a prototype, but the real thing.

I was on holiday at my parents’ home in South Africa and that’s where I started the first one. I was working on a Les Paul design, but felt little could be gained by simply taking a conventional design and reproducing it with 3D printing. We were having lunch at a restaurant in the Durban harbor, and I saw some oil on the water and was fascinated by the way it formed constantly changing coalescent patterns. That was the inspiration for my first design, the Atom guitar. Biology has been the inspiration of many of my 3D-printed guitar designs. One of the challenges is to take this inspiration from nature (referred to as biomimicry) to produce designs that are still rock ‘n roll.

I began to blog about my initial experimentation and the response was overwhelming. I then realized that a nice little business of designing and 3D printing guitars could develop. The process evolved greatly as I learned about the engineering behind making a guitar that played and sounded good. The learning curve was steep when trying to apply this knowledge to the unique advantages of 3D printing. It took more than a year for me to fully understand what I was doing, and to produce instruments that looked, played, and sounded the way they should. Since starting in 2012, I have produced 46 guitars and am constantly working on new designs that show some of what 3D printing can do.

Every time I push the limits and design something that I don’t believe is possible to make, I am amazed by how 3D printing rises to meet the challenge and produces exactly what I had envisioned. This helps to make the effort even more gratifying. My hope is that the owners of these new products also receive satisfaction by holding an instrument that few others have touched or played.

March 29, 2014

Rebranding Manufacturing in America

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 14:59

Note: The following was authored by Tim Caffrey, senior consultant at Wohlers Associates.

For many, the word manufacturing conjures images of antiquated factories belching black smoke into our air and chemical-tainted liquids into our waterways. Buildings are cavernous and dangerous, filled with old, energy-guzzling machines. In these images, the workers are unmotivated and unhappy, performing repetitive, menial tasks for countless hours—for entire dead-end careers.

These images are inaccurate and out of date. Modern manufacturing is more likely to be energy efficient and environmentally responsible. Manufacturing companies are continuously improving and innovating to remain competitive and compliant with industrial regulations. And, manufacturing employees are typically well-educated, highly skilled individuals who take pride in their professions and perceive their work as important and virtuous.

Now consider the phrases German engineering and Swiss-made watches. Both elicit very different images than that of the antiquated American factory. We imagine rich traditions, meticulous and exacting craftsmanship, and superior products. We must examine why these perceptions contrast so much. Is this contrast accurate, or is it based on out-of-date beliefs?

Many beliefs are rooted in emotion, rather than reason or logic. Successful brands and marketing campaigns trigger an almost subconscious emotional response in the target audience by confirming—or even changing—what that group believes is good, appealing, valuable, and necessary.

The successful revival of the manufacturing industry in the U.S. must include a similar “rebranding” in the eyes of the public, politicians, and policy makers. Manufacturing is no longer a dirty word. Manufacturing is high-tech, it’s innovative, it’s a great career choice, and it’s the backbone of a thriving economy. And, highly advanced digitally driven processes, such as additive manufacturing and 3D printing, are helping to change the public’s view. Let’s work together to spread the word.

March 15, 2014

AM Material Pricing

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Future — Terry Wohlers @ 07:11

Most would agree that materials for additive manufacturing (AM), also referred to as 3D printing, are expensive. As a rule of thumb, polymers for industrial AM systems are in the range of $100 to $300 per kg (2.2 lbs), although they can be lower or higher. This pricing is dramatically more than equivalent materials used for injection molding and other plastics processing, which are typically $2 to $4 per kg, depending on the type and quantity of plastic. It is our belief that AM material pricing will decline as competition heats up and AM patents continue to expire.

Two recent developments could drive prices downward. One is the October 2013 introduction of the Freeformer machine from Arburg, a large German manufacturer of injection molding machines. The 3D printer deposits droplets of thermoplastic using the same inexpensive plastic pellets used for injection molding. The second advance is the development of a large machine by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Cincinnati Incorporated. It can produce parts at a rate of 4.5 to 9 kg per hour—orders of magnitude faster than most AM systems. And, it also uses low-cost injection molding plastics in pellet form.

The expiration of key patents will also impact material prices. Foundation patents associated with FDM from Stratasys expired years ago, and this is what allowed the development and commercialization of countless low-cost 3D printers, many for less than $2,000. Materials for these machines are available for less than $20 per kg. As these machines improve, they will put pressure on the more expensive machines, especially for very basic design, concept modeling, and prototyping applications. Meanwhile, the final selective laser sintering patent at the University of Texas at Austin will expire in mid June 2014. It is also a foundation patent, which is expected to create a flurry of activity around the development of low-cost laser sintering systems and materials.

Expensive AM materials are not a problem for companies that use machines for small quantities of parts. However, with production quantities, the pricing is not only a problem, it’s a “show stopper.” We believe the high AM material prices will largely be resolved through competitive pressures. However, it could become painful to the companies that have been enjoying the high margins on these materials, some for more than two decades.

March 2, 2014

Playing the Bass

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Life,Review — Terry Wohlers @ 06:51

I received the Hive bass guitar from Olaf Diegel, PhD of ODD Guitars in August 2013. The Hive is a striking design and is beautifully manufactured. And, in June 2012, I received the impressive Spider guitar from Olaf, which is one of his first creations. I was surprised to learn that he used SolidWorks for all of this guitar designs. To see all of them, including Olaf’s latest designs, Google “3D printed guitars” and click Images or go to odd.org.nz. 3D printing was used to produce the main body of these master pieces—one reason they are so special.

I began to take bass lessons a few months ago, with the goal of being able to play the instrument with other musicians. My crazy work and travel schedule have prevented me from keeping up with the lessons, coupled with weeks of little practice. I have not given up, however, and I continue to play and practice whenever I can. I look forward to getting my hands on the Hive bass and learning to play. It may take a year or longer, but I’m determined to master it.

A big thanks to Olaf for what could become a life-changing experience. Already, I’ve had a ton of fun with it, even if I never make it to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. I do want to win a small bet I made with our son and our daughter’s boyfriend. The bet is to play with a band in front of an audience. It’s a darn good thing we didn’t tie a timeframe to the bet because I could be old and gray by the time it happens, although I’d like to prevent that from happening.

Editor’s note: Olaf Diegel is also an associate consultant at Wohlers Associates.

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