August 17, 2014

3D-Printed Saxophone

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE — Terry Wohlers @ 08:08

Note: The following was authored by Tim Caffrey, senior consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Olaf Diegal has done it again. His latest feat: a 3D-printed alto saxophone. At 575 grams vs. 2.5 kg, the laser-sintered nylon instrument weighs less than a quarter of a metal sax. Consisting of 41 separate parts, not counting the metal springs and screws, a saxophone is an incredibly complex instrument. One can only imagine how time-consuming the modeling of all the 3D-printed parts was using SolidWorks.

Olaf admits his first version had a few small problems. Nevertheless, as a design exercise, his sax is nothing short of amazing. For the second version, he plans to redesign the instrument by integrating all the spring actions into the 3D-printed parts.

Saxophone

The attention Olaf’s sax has drawn on the Internet is also amazing. His YouTube “sneak preview” video has been viewed nearly 200,000 times since it was posted less than three weeks ago.

One reason Olaf decided to tackle the challenge was to show that real-world products beyond trinkets and Yoda heads can be 3D printed. He is actively looking for a new challenge in design and 3D printing and has asked us to help him identify a new project. So, if you have ideas, please pass them along to him or us.

Olaf is an associate consultant at Wohlers Associates and a professor of mechatronics at Lund University in Lund, Sweden. You may be familiar with the stunning 3D-printed guitar bodies that Olaf designs, prints, and assembles into fully functional masterpieces. If you are unfamiliar with them, have a look at the ODD Guitars.

August 3, 2014

3DRV

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,Manufacturing,Travel — Terry Wohlers @ 14:33

Imagine an eight-month RV road trip across the U.S. with more than 100 scheduled stops. The purpose: to collect stories and information from customers of design and manufacturing tools, such as CAD software and 3D printing. Accomplished writer and 3D enthusiast TJ McCue is leading the tour. I’ve gotten to know TJ over the past 2.5 years, and I can say without reservation that Autodesk, the tour’s sponsor, could not have picked a better person to head this effort.

TJ has written extensively for Forbes, Small Business Trends, Yahoo! SMB, and Harvard Business Review. His writing is informative, thought-provoking, and engaging. TJ’s company, Refine Digital, explores design, 3D scanning, and 3D printing, so the tour compliments perfectly with what he’s about. TJ helps companies with go-to-market strategies, content marketing, and business development, so I’m sure he will be in an even stronger position to provide advice after the tour.

tj

TJ wrote, “The 3DRV tour is exploring the cities, towns, and off-the-path byways to uncover a fundamental change in the way things are designed and made, and how this is bringing radical change to business and to society at large.” He continued, “At each waypoint, we are celebrating the creative process, while illuminating the impact of design through firsthand customer stories, consumer creativity, and student innovations.”

rv

The images and descriptions that TJ has assembled are impressive. He has made 38 site visits thus far—all documented at the tour website. He is also shooting video footage, so I’m looking forward to seeing some of it. I’m sure he will have countless stories and examples of design and manufacturing to share with the world. Congrats to TJ for taking on this important activity as an interesting way of promoting and celebrating the world of product development.

July 20, 2014

Stelarc

Stelarc is a performance artist and designer that has lived much of his life in a Melbourne, Australia suburb. He was born in Cyprus as Stelios Arcadiou and changed his name in 1972. His work focuses mostly on the belief that the human body is obsolete, but its capacity can be enhanced through technology.

I first met Stelarc in 2005 at the VRAP 3D printing event in Leiria, Portugal. Travel prevented me from attending his presentation, although he was kind enough to provide me with an eye-opening set of printed images and a DVD. Many of his technical developments and works of art are unusual—some of which you’d have to see to believe. Entering “Stelarc” into Google and clicking Images will give you an interesting sampling.

I had the pleasure of meeting and talking with Stelarc again nine days ago in Brisbane, Australia. He gave an intriguing presentation at a one-day 3D printing event organized by Griffith University. People in the audience of 170 were visibly stunned by his work. An example was the 2007 video footage showing a team of surgeons constructing an ear on his left forearm.

stelarc

The skin was suctioned over a scaffold, which was made of porous biomaterial. Tissue in-growth and vascularization then followed over a period of six months. This resulted in a relief of an ear. The helix needs to be surgically lifted to create an ear flap and a soft ear lobe will be grown using his stem-cells. A small microphone will then be inserted and the ear electronically augmented for Internet connectivity. Thus, the third ear will result in a mobile listening device for people in other places.

I was especially impressed by Stelarc’s knowledge and understanding of biomedicine, robotics, prosthetics, and 3D printing. The content that he presented and discussed and the questions he answered showed that he is not only an artist, but a designer and maker of complex machines and systems. In recent years, he has used 3D printing extensively to support much of his work.

Stelarc is a Distinguished Research Fellow and the Director of the Alternate Anatomies Lab, School of Design and Art, at Curtin University, which is located in Perth, Australia. He has many awards and honors to his credit, including an honorary doctorate from Monash University in Melbourne.

 

July 3, 2014

AM Demand Will Exceed Supply

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Future — Terry Wohlers @ 09:43

Note: The following was authored by Tim Caffrey, senior consultant at Wohlers Associates. It was originally published July 3, 2014, and updated and republished July 9, 2014.

Over the past decade, several major trends have emerged in the additive manufacturing (AM) industry. Two of them are 1) the rapid growth of metals, and 2) a marked increase in production applications. Yet, outside of dental copings and acetabular (hip cup) implants, these two key developments have not converged in a significant way. That changed in May 2013 when GE Aviation announced its plan to manufacture all fuel nozzles for its LEAP engine using metal AM. With 19 fuel nozzles per engine, production is scheduled to reach 40,000–45,000 units annually in six or seven years.

The announcement was one of the most significant milestones in the history of the AM industry. A major corporation publically declared its confidence in AM for a demanding production application in a hostile and critical operating environment. At the same time, this development created a new concern: Will supply keep up with demand? According to Greg Morris of GE Aviation, the fuel nozzle production would require about 60 systems working around the clock using today’s AM metal technology.

A July 1 story on the German news website Wirtschafts Woche reported that GE Aviation intends to order 100 metal systems from EOS. An official announcement is expected during the Farnborough International Airshow later this month. We have since learned that this story is inaccurate. According to GE Aviation, no order has been placed. A vendor has not been selected and the number of systems to be ordered has not been determined. While unit sales of metal AM systems increased 75.8% last year, according to our research for Wohlers Report 2014, production capacity at AM system manufacturers is still relatively low. An order of this magnitude would certainly jolt EOS’s production capability and tax its resources. It will also produce a ripple effect for other metal AM system manufacturers.

One can assume that the GE fuel nozzle is the first of many metal production parts launched, and more from the aerospace, medical, dental, jewelry, and (eventually) automotive sectors will follow. Can the AM industry meet this demand? We believe that the metal AM supply chain—consisting of system manufacturers, material suppliers, and certified service providers—will not be able to keep pace with demand.

June 22, 2014

Growth of Metal AM Systems

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 11:05

Note: The following was excerpted from “Part 4: Industry Growth” in Wohlers Report 2014.

Additive manufacturing (AM) systems for metal parts are increasing in popularity worldwide, as shown in the following chart. Wohlers Associates has been tracking this market segment for 14 years, but this is only the second time to publish metal-based AM machine unit sales by year in Wohlers Report 2014. As the chart indicates, 348 of these machines were sold in 2013, compared to 198 in 2012—growth of an impressive 75.8%.

metal

The chart shows continued growth through 2006, followed by a multi-year slump. Much of the growth and subsequent decline were due to ExOne’s Imagen dental systems, which made gold copings for crowns and bridges. ExOne made a big push with this system until 2007, when it was pulled from the market. It is believed the company stopped offering the machine due to the increased price of gold and other factors related to cost and market acceptance.

June 7, 2014

AM Industry Growth

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 11:10

Excerpt: The following are the opening paragraphs of “Part 4: Industry Growth” in Wohlers Report 2014.

Growth has accelerated over the past four years as an increasing number of organizations adopt additive manufacturing (AM) products and services. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of worldwide revenues produced by all products and services over the past 25 years is an impressive 27%. The CAGR for the past three years (2011–2013) was 32.3%.

Unit sales of professional-grade, industrial systems strengthened in 2013 after a reasonably strong 2012. Revenues from products were especially strong in 2013 after a solid 2012. Growth of the services segment was good, but not nearly to the extent of product sales growth.

The average selling price of industrial AM systems increased for the third consecutive year. Meanwhile, 2013 growth in sales of low-cost personal 3D printers returned to the triple digits after a less vigorous 2012.

The AM industry has grown in the double digits for 17 of its 26 years. It continues to offer tremendous untapped potential, especially in custom and short-run part production. A product development and manufacturing company may spend 5–10% on design and prototyping for a given product development program. The remaining 90–95% is spent on production—a major reason why so many companies are aggressively pursuing this market segment.

AM system manufacturers and service providers are increasingly offering solutions for the production of parts that go into final products. However, this market segment comes with dramatically higher quality standards than those associated with modeling and prototyping applications. As it continues to develop, the demand for production parts from AM is expected to drive annual revenues to much higher levels. The 2013 figures were strengthened by this developing market segment.

May 25, 2014

Organic Modeling with SolidWorks

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE — Terry Wohlers @ 08:33

Note: The following was authored by Olaf Diegel, associate consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Most of my 3D-printed guitar designs include organic 3D shapes. By organic, I mean objects such as insects, animals, and flowers, with lots of flowing surfaces. Many people have asked me how I use SolidWorks, a popular CAD software product, to create these objects.

I begin by breaking down the entire design into as many separate features as I can. I do this whether the part is highly organic, or a regular geometric part. If one looks at a honey bee, for example, its body is a very complex shape that could be a serious challenge to model as a single feature. When breaking the bee’s body into the head, neck, waist, and main body, each individual part is much less complex than the whole, making the object simpler to model. (The head, for example, is further broken into the beak, eyes, etc.) I do it all as a single part, but first model the main body as a feature, than add the waist as the next feature, then the neck, and the head. I usually need a few simple fillets to blend the parts together. And, finally, I add the wings and legs, and voila, … it’s a bee.

new

Most 3D CAD software generally offers two approaches: solid modeling and surface modelling. Surface modelling typically allows easier control of complex surfaces, but also requires extra steps to make things that are directly 3D printable. Gaps or overlaps between surfaces can cause problems. When working on complex shapes, I usually use a combination of both solid and surface modeling. I’ll start the overall shape as a surface and, as soon as I have enough completed, I’ll convert it into a solid. From that point forward, I work on it as a solid.

When working on models that will be 3D printed, I try to keep in mind the level of detail that will be visible after 3D printing. If, for example, I create King Kong sitting on the Empire State Building that’s only 10 mm in height, most facial features will not be visible. Therefore, I don’t waste much time on those fine features, although it is easy to sometimes get carried away because it’s fun to add the details.

It is usually only after I have modeled something that I realize how I could have done it in a much easier way, so I often go back and do it again in a completely different way. Trying different ways of doing something, often several times with different methods, is how I learn the best ways of 3D modeling complex organic objects with SolidWorks.

May 11, 2014

Love Hate Relationship

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Life — Terry Wohlers @ 07:20

I have a “special relationship” with the Wohlers Report—a 3D printing and additive manufacturing industry study that we’ve published for 19 consecutive years. It started out as a relatively small effort, but it grew into something much bigger. To some degree, it has turned into the “tail wagging the dog,” a situation where a smaller part is controlling the whole of something.

I do not like the word “hate” and rarely use it, but it’s fitting for the title of this blog commentary. Perhaps “difficult” and “challenging” better describe February to May each year—the time when we create the new report. We “cut the fat” and try to make the report as lean and easy to read and digest as possible, with new and up-to-date information and data. With the recent changes in the industry, it has been a challenge. Our goal is always to be “short on words, but long on information,” when developing the report.

Now, for the love: The report was published 10 days ago, so we recently entered into the “love” phase. Already, we are enjoying the contents of the report and hope that our customers will do the same over the next 12 months. I refer to parts of the report daily for details that have been documented. We use it for many of our projects, investor consultations, and presentations. It helps us to articulate our thoughts and provide perspective in a way that would otherwise be difficult.

My sincere thanks to Wohlers Associates senior consultant and principal co-author Tim Caffrey for his tireless efforts associated with the new edition. I appreciate beyond words the work of the 70 co-authors, many of whom contributed a great deal of time, effort, and insight to the report. And, my thanks to the 82 service providers and 29 system manufacturers that shared detailed information that helped us create industry-wide totals in the form of charts, tables, and summaries. I genuinely hope that all of these people and companies have more of a “love” for this annual publication than anything else.

April 27, 2014

The Evolution of 3D-Printed Guitars

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 09:16

Note: The following was authored by Olaf Diegel, associate consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Just over two years ago, I started to design 3D-printed guitars to see if it could be done. I had been using additive manufacturing since the mid-1990s for the prototyping of products before taking them into production. I was amazed by how the technology had evolved over the past two decades. Because of my interest in music growing up, I decided to see if it had evolved to the point of being able to print an electric guitar—not a prototype, but the real thing.

I was on holiday at my parents’ home in South Africa and that’s where I started the first one. I was working on a Les Paul design, but felt little could be gained by simply taking a conventional design and reproducing it with 3D printing. We were having lunch at a restaurant in the Durban harbor, and I saw some oil on the water and was fascinated by the way it formed constantly changing coalescent patterns. That was the inspiration for my first design, the Atom guitar. Biology has been the inspiration of many of my 3D-printed guitar designs. One of the challenges is to take this inspiration from nature (referred to as biomimicry) to produce designs that are still rock ‘n roll.

I began to blog about my initial experimentation and the response was overwhelming. I then realized that a nice little business of designing and 3D printing guitars could develop. The process evolved greatly as I learned about the engineering behind making a guitar that played and sounded good. The learning curve was steep when trying to apply this knowledge to the unique advantages of 3D printing. It took more than a year for me to fully understand what I was doing, and to produce instruments that looked, played, and sounded the way they should. Since starting in 2012, I have produced 46 guitars and am constantly working on new designs that show some of what 3D printing can do.

Every time I push the limits and design something that I don’t believe is possible to make, I am amazed by how 3D printing rises to meet the challenge and produces exactly what I had envisioned. This helps to make the effort even more gratifying. My hope is that the owners of these new products also receive satisfaction by holding an instrument that few others have touched or played.

April 12, 2014

Extraordinary People

Filed under: Life — Terry Wohlers @ 07:54

I have had the privilege of meeting some high achievers in the past. They have provided inspiration to me and many others. A number of them have been affiliated with NASA space program.

Alan Shepard was the first American in space, and he walked on the moon. I was lucky to be seated next to him on a flight from Denver to San Francisco in 1995. We talked about the space program, the Vomit Comet, and the Apollo 13 movie, which was released two weeks earlier.

Jim Lovell is the former astronaut that made the line “Houston, we have a problem” famous. Lovell and Gene Kranz, flight director at NASA Mission Control for the Apollo 13 mission, presented at SolidWorks World 2011. I did not get to meet Lovell, but I met Kranz. The guy, then 77, carried a look that was as tough as nails.

Former astronaut Mike Mullane flew on three space shuttle missions. He is also the author of the book Riding Rockets: The Outrageous Tales of a Space Shuttle Astronaut. It is one of the best books I’ve ever read. I met Mullane at SME’s RAPID 2003 where he served as keynote speaker.

Others that I’ve been fortunate to meet:

  • James Cameron, producer of Avatar, Titanic, Aliens, The Abyss, and many other films
  • Roy Disney, longtime executive of The Walt Disney Company, which his father and uncle, Walt Disney, co-founded
  • Sir Richard Branson, founder of the Virgin Group that includes more than 400 companies
  • Joel Orr, brilliant speaker, futurist, writer, and friend of 30 years
  • Tony Fadell, considered by many as the “father” of the iPod and leader of the team at Apple that developed the iPhone

I have met others, but these people are among those that stand out. In the 1980s, I had the chance to meet Steve Jobs, but didn’t, and I regret it to this day. I have never met a U.S. president, but I hope to one day.

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