September 29, 2014

3D Printing Progress at UPS

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 08:25

In July 2013, UPS announced that it would offer product design and 3D printing services at six of its 4,400 UPS Store locations across the U.S. The new service would be a part of a pilot program to determine whether the company could offer this service—an area in which it had no previous experience. Last week, the company announced that it is expanding the program to 100 stores nationwide. Already, the service is available at 45 locations. The company plans to expand the program into 2015 until it reaches the 100 or so locations. UPS has chosen to use the uPrint 3D printer from Stratasys for the program.

I was skeptical when I first heard about the idea. Offering 3D printing is one thing, but providing design services is far more involved. To me, it sounded like UPS was opening a can of worms. I envisioned home inventors, do-it-yourselfers, and others walking into stores with half-baked napkin sketches of new product ideas and expecting someone to magically convert them into printable files. When starting with underdeveloped ideas, the big cost is in the design and CAD solid modeling work, not the 3D printing of scaled plastic models. The big question I had was: Who is going to pay for this relatively expensive service? The average consumer would probably not fully understand and appreciate the effort and cost, and would go away disillusioned.

ups

It turns out the UPS is selling the service mostly to people that are bringing in already-developed 3D solid models, in STL form, to the stores. Most are practicing professionals, although a number of amateurs using Tinkercad and other low-cost CAD products are also using the service. The target market and “sweet spot” for The UPS Store network are businesses that employ 10 people or less. UPS is serving as a small business resource center and helping customers with a wide range of services. Among them are page design, signage, marketing collateral, accounting, payroll, websites, and even employee background checks.

From what I can tell, the first year of 3D printing at UPS has been mostly successful. Franchise owners or managers of The UPS Stores offering this service have been trained to manage the 3D printing operation. Daniel Remba, UPS small business technology leader, said that he expected more demand for design services, which are being outsourced to contractors. I asked him how many of the stores would have product development and 3D printing services in the future. He did not know, but stated that it could grow to 1,000 or more, although it’s much too early to know where it will go.

Video clips one, two, and three from UPS are interesting and worthwhile.

 

September 15, 2014

America Makes Two Years Later

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Future,Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 10:28

America Makes is the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute that was launched in August 2012. It is the first in a series of institutes in the U.S. and is a part of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) that the White House and many government agencies are supporting. Each institute seeks to expand specific areas of underdeveloped manufacturing technology from private-public partnerships on a national scale.

The underlying goal of the innovation institutes is to transition promising developments in manufacturing from a technology readiness level (TRL) 4 to TRL 7. The TRL measure is a way of gauging the current state of a particular technology. TRL 1 is usually a concept at the basic research level, whereas TRL 9 is a fully-qualified production process suitable for commercialization. Historically, much of what is developed in the U.S. progresses to about a TRL 3, and does not bridge the “valley of death” to TRL 7. The NNMI was largely created to solve this problem.

To achieve success, a national innovation institute must have stakeholders. America Makes recently completed its second year in operation and can claim nearly 110 member organizations. America Makes director Ed Morris, founding director Ralph Resnick, and their team have done an outstanding job in attracting some of the most important organizations to America Makes. We are optimistic that many more will join in the coming months and look forward to much more growth. Wohlers Associates is proud to be one of eight Platinum Members, which is the top-tier membership level.

americamakes

Much of the work in the first two years has been in creating a solid foundation with staffing, systems, and strategies for the years to follow. America Makes has been successful in awarding projects to many organizations. In January 2014, it awarded a second round of 15 projects to 75 individual partner organizations. Combined with the first round of projects, America Makes has invested nearly $30 million in public and private funds toward advancing additive manufacturing and 3D printing in the U.S.

Is America Makes meeting its objectives? In some ways, it is exceeding them, given that only two years have passed. No one knew how this first (pilot) institute would take shape and whether corporations, universities, and others would embrace it. Sponsorship of more than 100 organizations, as well as the support and involvement of many government entities (Department of Defense, Department of Energy, and others), is impressive. The bigger question that we cannot yet answer is whether the NNMI institutes will make a difference in the long term. We are optimistic that they will, but it’s much too early to know for sure.

September 1, 2014

25 Years of SFF

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Event — Terry Wohlers @ 13:53

I had the pleasure of attending the 25th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium last month. It was organized by and held at the University of Texas at Austin—the birthplace of selective laser sintering (SLS). The conference is the longest-running event worldwide on additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing.

The beginning of the program was dedicated to the first five years of AM. The first speaker, Harris Marcus, previously of UT and now at the University of Connecticut at Storrs, discussed the founding of the SFF Symposium. After 15 minutes of interesting history, it was my turn to provide a perspective of the early years. We did not have data projectors and computer-based presentations back then, so it was decided to go back in more than one way to the 1980s. Fortunately, my hundreds of 35 mm slides were in a state that made it possible to organize a 30-minute presentation that I hoped would capture many of the most important developments.

It was a little tricky for SFF organizer Dave Bourell of UT to secure a 35 mm projector, but he did. I discovered that morning how dull the projected images were in the old days, compared to today’s high-end data projectors. I asked for an audience show of hands and found that it was the first time for many in the room to experience the projection of 35 mm slides. I was relieved when all 78 slides dropped down from the 80-capacity carrousel without a hitch. More than 17 years had passed since I had given a 35 mm slide presentation.

sff
From left to right: Terry Wohlers, Chuck Hull, Carl Deckard, Lisa Crump, and Dave Bourell

Chuck Hull, founder of 3D Systems, followed my presentation. He said the original idea of stereolithography came to him in 1982, and he built the first part in March 1983. He gave the part to his wife, who has as it to this day. I remember seeing 3D Systems’ SLA-1 beta system at SME’s Autofact in November 1987 in Detroit, Michigan. The company introduced the first commercially available product, the SLA-250, the following year.

Chuck, 75, looks great and hasn’t changed much in recent years. I enjoyed having lunch with him at the symposium and discussing his work. He told me that he has an R&D team of 15-20 people, including interns, and is hoping to one day transition from managing R&D projects to serving in more of a strategic capacity. We discussed travel and Hawaii, finding and keeping good employees, and the challenges of keeping foreign students in the U.S. after they have graduated from American universities.

Lisa Crump, co-founder of Stratasys, also gave an excellent presentation. She revealed details of how difficult it was in the early days to secure investment dollars and to keep from running out of money as they developed and commercialized the first fused deposition modeling (FDM) machine. Mike Cima of MIT gave an interesting view of the early days of binder jetting technology that is used today at many companies. Ely Sachs, then of MIT, and Cima were co-developers of what was then referred to as 3DP (short for 3D printing) technology. Carl Deckard of Structured Polymers and the inventor of SLS, and Joe Beaman of UT, gave intriguing presentations focused on the invention and what followed. Deckard was a student at UT when he conceived SLS with the help of Beaman, an advisor and supporter.

It was a lot of fun to reflect on the past and observe how far we’ve come in 25 years. Congratulations to the inventors of AM and the founders of the companies that played such an important role in shaping what followed. And, congrats to Dave Bourell and the UT team for keeping the SFF symposium alive for so many years.

August 17, 2014

3D-Printed Saxophone

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE — Terry Wohlers @ 08:08

Note: The following was authored by Tim Caffrey, senior consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Olaf Diegal has done it again. His latest feat: a 3D-printed alto saxophone. At 575 grams vs. 2.5 kg, the laser-sintered nylon instrument weighs less than a quarter of a metal sax. Consisting of 41 separate parts, not counting the metal springs and screws, a saxophone is an incredibly complex instrument. One can only imagine how time-consuming the modeling of all the 3D-printed parts was using SolidWorks.

Olaf admits his first version had a few small problems. Nevertheless, as a design exercise, his sax is nothing short of amazing. For the second version, he plans to redesign the instrument by integrating all the spring actions into the 3D-printed parts.

Saxophone

The attention Olaf’s sax has drawn on the Internet is also amazing. His YouTube “sneak preview” video has been viewed nearly 200,000 times since it was posted less than three weeks ago.

One reason Olaf decided to tackle the challenge was to show that real-world products beyond trinkets and Yoda heads can be 3D printed. He is actively looking for a new challenge in design and 3D printing and has asked us to help him identify a new project. So, if you have ideas, please pass them along to him or us.

Olaf is an associate consultant at Wohlers Associates and a professor of mechatronics at Lund University in Lund, Sweden. You may be familiar with the stunning 3D-printed guitar bodies that Olaf designs, prints, and assembles into fully functional masterpieces. If you are unfamiliar with them, have a look at the ODD Guitars.

August 3, 2014

3DRV

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,Manufacturing,Travel — Terry Wohlers @ 14:33

Imagine an eight-month RV road trip across the U.S. with more than 100 scheduled stops. The purpose: to collect stories and information from customers of design and manufacturing tools, such as CAD software and 3D printing. Accomplished writer and 3D enthusiast TJ McCue is leading the tour. I’ve gotten to know TJ over the past 2.5 years, and I can say without reservation that Autodesk, the tour’s sponsor, could not have picked a better person to head this effort.

TJ has written extensively for Forbes, Small Business Trends, Yahoo! SMB, and Harvard Business Review. His writing is informative, thought-provoking, and engaging. TJ’s company, Refine Digital, explores design, 3D scanning, and 3D printing, so the tour compliments perfectly with what he’s about. TJ helps companies with go-to-market strategies, content marketing, and business development, so I’m sure he will be in an even stronger position to provide advice after the tour.

tj

TJ wrote, “The 3DRV tour is exploring the cities, towns, and off-the-path byways to uncover a fundamental change in the way things are designed and made, and how this is bringing radical change to business and to society at large.” He continued, “At each waypoint, we are celebrating the creative process, while illuminating the impact of design through firsthand customer stories, consumer creativity, and student innovations.”

rv

The images and descriptions that TJ has assembled are impressive. He has made 38 site visits thus far—all documented at the tour website. He is also shooting video footage, so I’m looking forward to seeing some of it. I’m sure he will have countless stories and examples of design and manufacturing to share with the world. Congrats to TJ for taking on this important activity as an interesting way of promoting and celebrating the world of product development.

July 20, 2014

Stelarc

Stelarc is a performance artist and designer that has lived much of his life in a Melbourne, Australia suburb. He was born in Cyprus as Stelios Arcadiou and changed his name in 1972. His work focuses mostly on the belief that the human body is obsolete, but its capacity can be enhanced through technology.

I first met Stelarc in 2005 at the VRAP 3D printing event in Leiria, Portugal. Travel prevented me from attending his presentation, although he was kind enough to provide me with an eye-opening set of printed images and a DVD. Many of his technical developments and works of art are unusual—some of which you’d have to see to believe. Entering “Stelarc” into Google and clicking Images will give you an interesting sampling.

I had the pleasure of meeting and talking with Stelarc again nine days ago in Brisbane, Australia. He gave an intriguing presentation at a one-day 3D printing event organized by Griffith University. People in the audience of 170 were visibly stunned by his work. An example was the 2007 video footage showing a team of surgeons constructing an ear on his left forearm.

stelarc

The skin was suctioned over a scaffold, which was made of porous biomaterial. Tissue in-growth and vascularization then followed over a period of six months. This resulted in a relief of an ear. The helix needs to be surgically lifted to create an ear flap and a soft ear lobe will be grown using his stem-cells. A small microphone will then be inserted and the ear electronically augmented for Internet connectivity. Thus, the third ear will result in a mobile listening device for people in other places.

I was especially impressed by Stelarc’s knowledge and understanding of biomedicine, robotics, prosthetics, and 3D printing. The content that he presented and discussed and the questions he answered showed that he is not only an artist, but a designer and maker of complex machines and systems. In recent years, he has used 3D printing extensively to support much of his work.

Stelarc is a Distinguished Research Fellow and the Director of the Alternate Anatomies Lab, School of Design and Art, at Curtin University, which is located in Perth, Australia. He has many awards and honors to his credit, including an honorary doctorate from Monash University in Melbourne.

 

July 3, 2014

AM Demand Will Exceed Supply

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,Future — Terry Wohlers @ 09:43

Note: The following was authored by Tim Caffrey, senior consultant at Wohlers Associates. It was originally published July 3, 2014, and updated and republished July 9, 2014.

Over the past decade, several major trends have emerged in the additive manufacturing (AM) industry. Two of them are 1) the rapid growth of metals, and 2) a marked increase in production applications. Yet, outside of dental copings and acetabular (hip cup) implants, these two key developments have not converged in a significant way. That changed in May 2013 when GE Aviation announced its plan to manufacture all fuel nozzles for its LEAP engine using metal AM. With 19 fuel nozzles per engine, production is scheduled to reach 40,000–45,000 units annually in six or seven years.

The announcement was one of the most significant milestones in the history of the AM industry. A major corporation publically declared its confidence in AM for a demanding production application in a hostile and critical operating environment. At the same time, this development created a new concern: Will supply keep up with demand? According to Greg Morris of GE Aviation, the fuel nozzle production would require about 60 systems working around the clock using today’s AM metal technology.

A July 1 story on the German news website Wirtschafts Woche reported that GE Aviation intends to order 100 metal systems from EOS. An official announcement is expected during the Farnborough International Airshow later this month. We have since learned that this story is inaccurate. According to GE Aviation, no order has been placed. A vendor has not been selected and the number of systems to be ordered has not been determined. While unit sales of metal AM systems increased 75.8% last year, according to our research for Wohlers Report 2014, production capacity at AM system manufacturers is still relatively low. An order of this magnitude would certainly jolt EOS’s production capability and tax its resources. It will also produce a ripple effect for other metal AM system manufacturers.

One can assume that the GE fuel nozzle is the first of many metal production parts launched, and more from the aerospace, medical, dental, jewelry, and (eventually) automotive sectors will follow. Can the AM industry meet this demand? We believe that the metal AM supply chain—consisting of system manufacturers, material suppliers, and certified service providers—will not be able to keep pace with demand.

June 22, 2014

Growth of Metal AM Systems

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 11:05

Note: The following was excerpted from “Part 4: Industry Growth” in Wohlers Report 2014.

Additive manufacturing (AM) systems for metal parts are increasing in popularity worldwide, as shown in the following chart. Wohlers Associates has been tracking this market segment for 14 years, but this is only the second time to publish metal-based AM machine unit sales by year in Wohlers Report 2014. As the chart indicates, 348 of these machines were sold in 2013, compared to 198 in 2012—growth of an impressive 75.8%.

metal

The chart shows continued growth through 2006, followed by a multi-year slump. Much of the growth and subsequent decline were due to ExOne’s Imagen dental systems, which made gold copings for crowns and bridges. ExOne made a big push with this system until 2007, when it was pulled from the market. It is believed the company stopped offering the machine due to the increased price of gold and other factors related to cost and market acceptance.

June 7, 2014

AM Industry Growth

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 11:10

Excerpt: The following are the opening paragraphs of “Part 4: Industry Growth” in Wohlers Report 2014.

Growth has accelerated over the past four years as an increasing number of organizations adopt additive manufacturing (AM) products and services. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of worldwide revenues produced by all products and services over the past 25 years is an impressive 27%. The CAGR for the past three years (2011–2013) was 32.3%.

Unit sales of professional-grade, industrial systems strengthened in 2013 after a reasonably strong 2012. Revenues from products were especially strong in 2013 after a solid 2012. Growth of the services segment was good, but not nearly to the extent of product sales growth.

The average selling price of industrial AM systems increased for the third consecutive year. Meanwhile, 2013 growth in sales of low-cost personal 3D printers returned to the triple digits after a less vigorous 2012.

The AM industry has grown in the double digits for 17 of its 26 years. It continues to offer tremendous untapped potential, especially in custom and short-run part production. A product development and manufacturing company may spend 5–10% on design and prototyping for a given product development program. The remaining 90–95% is spent on production—a major reason why so many companies are aggressively pursuing this market segment.

AM system manufacturers and service providers are increasingly offering solutions for the production of parts that go into final products. However, this market segment comes with dramatically higher quality standards than those associated with modeling and prototyping applications. As it continues to develop, the demand for production parts from AM is expected to drive annual revenues to much higher levels. The 2013 figures were strengthened by this developing market segment.

May 25, 2014

Organic Modeling with SolidWorks

Filed under: 3D printing,Additive Manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE — Terry Wohlers @ 08:33

Note: The following was authored by Olaf Diegel, associate consultant at Wohlers Associates.

Most of my 3D-printed guitar designs include organic 3D shapes. By organic, I mean objects such as insects, animals, and flowers, with lots of flowing surfaces. Many people have asked me how I use SolidWorks, a popular CAD software product, to create these objects.

I begin by breaking down the entire design into as many separate features as I can. I do this whether the part is highly organic, or a regular geometric part. If one looks at a honey bee, for example, its body is a very complex shape that could be a serious challenge to model as a single feature. When breaking the bee’s body into the head, neck, waist, and main body, each individual part is much less complex than the whole, making the object simpler to model. (The head, for example, is further broken into the beak, eyes, etc.) I do it all as a single part, but first model the main body as a feature, than add the waist as the next feature, then the neck, and the head. I usually need a few simple fillets to blend the parts together. And, finally, I add the wings and legs, and voila, … it’s a bee.

new

Most 3D CAD software generally offers two approaches: solid modeling and surface modelling. Surface modelling typically allows easier control of complex surfaces, but also requires extra steps to make things that are directly 3D printable. Gaps or overlaps between surfaces can cause problems. When working on complex shapes, I usually use a combination of both solid and surface modeling. I’ll start the overall shape as a surface and, as soon as I have enough completed, I’ll convert it into a solid. From that point forward, I work on it as a solid.

When working on models that will be 3D printed, I try to keep in mind the level of detail that will be visible after 3D printing. If, for example, I create King Kong sitting on the Empire State Building that’s only 10 mm in height, most facial features will not be visible. Therefore, I don’t waste much time on those fine features, although it is easy to sometimes get carried away because it’s fun to add the details.

It is usually only after I have modeled something that I realize how I could have done it in a much easier way, so I often go back and do it again in a completely different way. Trying different ways of doing something, often several times with different methods, is how I learn the best ways of 3D modeling complex organic objects with SolidWorks.

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