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3D-Printed Guns

August 11, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,legal — Terry Wohlers @ 05:29

With the “green light” looming for the 3D printing of guns on July 31, I was contacted by CNN, ABC7 News (San Francisco), and others. In two days, I conducted the following interviews, as well as two others:

I’m hopeful the interviews will help to educate our nation’s policy makers and the less-informed public on the realities of 3D-printed guns. Making it legal is not a good idea on a number of levels. First and foremost, it’s just plain dangerous. In 2013, soon after the idea of plastic 3D-printed guns was introduced, the Australian police 3D-printed two of them. When fired, both exploded. Watch the video.

Second, the 3D printing of guns sidesteps background checks and a registration process, making it impossible to track the firearms and their owners. And third, it is possible to 3D print the parts of a gun and then assemble them on the other side of security, whether it’s at a government office, sports arena, airport, or somewhere else. The individual plastic pieces would not resemble the parts of gun and may not be detected when being scanned.

In the afternoon of July 31, a Seattle judge granted a temporary restraining order to block the release of the files of guns on the Internet. A day earlier, eight states and the District of Columbia sued to block the publication of the files. The bottom line: the 3D printing of guns is a bad idea.

Growth of AM Service Providers

July 29, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 17:54

Note: The following was excerpted from Wohlers Report 2018.

Independent service providers worldwide generated an estimated $2.955 billion from the sale of parts produced by additive manufacturing systems in 2017. This is up 36% from the $2.173 billion reported for 2016.

The previous graph shows service provider revenue estimates (in millions of dollars) for the past 24 years. The bars represent only primary revenues, which are from parts produced on AM equipment. They do not include revenues from secondary processes, such as tooling, parts made from this tooling, castings, or CNC-machined parts. Also, they exclude design, engineering, CAD/CAM/CAE, and all other services.

Details on Wohlers Report 2018 are available here.

Recent AM Material Sales Growth

July 15, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 08:59

Note: The following was excerpted from Wohlers Report 2018.

In 2017, an estimated $1.13 billion was spent on materials for all additive manufacturing (AM) systems worldwide, including both industrial systems and desktop 3D printers. This represents an increase of 25.5% over the $903.0 million spent in 2016. The market segment grew 17.5% in 2016 and 20.0% in 2015. These estimates include sales of liquid photopolymers, powders, pellets, filaments, wires, sheet materials, and all other material types used for AM.

The previous graph provides a 17-year history of material sales for AM systems worldwide. The numbers are in millions of dollars.

Details on Wohlers Report 2018 are available here.

Inside 3D Printing – Seoul

July 2, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,event,manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 17:00

I attended last week’s fourth annual Inside 3D Printing event near Seoul, South Korea. It has been interesting to watch the even grow over the past four years. A total of 10,532 people from 28 countries attended. The event, organized by Rising Media and KINTEX, included three days of exhibition with 80+ companies and a two-day conference with 42 speakers and panelists. Many of the presentations were excellent.

Alex Lalumiere, a director at HP in Singapore, gave one of six keynote presentations. He focused mainly on how HP, as a manufacturing company, is using Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) to produce parts that save time and money. The presentation, focused on the following drill extraction shoe, was one of most interesting and compelling that I’ve heard from HP. It is used to aid in the manufacture of an HP inkjet printhead.

The image at the far left shows aluminum parts that are conventionally manufactured and assembled to produce what you see in the middle. The optimized design, shown at the right, consolidates eight parts into one and was 3D printed by MJF in PA12. This improved design reduced weight from 575 grams (1.27 lbs) to 52 grams (0.11 lb), a savings of 91%. The cost to produce the drill extraction shoe was reduced from $450 to $18, a savings of 96%, according to HP.

The previous example is what’s possible with methods of design for additive manufacturing (DfAM). Wohlers Associates is conducting a three-day, hands-on DfAM course in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Learn more about the August 8-10, 2018 course and register here so that you can Design at Elevation with us and others. Contact Ray Huff at rh@wohlerassociates.com with questions.

The Impact of DfAM

June 16, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,education,manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 11:22

Note: Associate consultant and DfAM expert Olaf Diegel authored the following.

Over the past three decades, the bulk of research in additive manufacturing has largely focused on AM processes and materials. In the last three years, organizations have begun to appreciate the importance of design for additive manufacturing (DfAM). Funding agencies are increasingly supporting DfAM, and companies are asking for courses on the subject. Over the past 12 months, I have given more than 20 DfAM courses for companies wanting to deepen their knowledge and understanding.

When a part is designed for conventional manufacturing, it is usually more expensive to produce by AM in typical production quantities. This is largely because AM processes are relatively slow compared to conventional methods of manufacturing. However, when a part is redesigned for AM, costs can be competitive or even lower, depending on quantities. Research for Wohlers Report 2018 revealed that 46% of the cost of a metal part is tied to pre- and post-processing. A large part of this cost often involves the production and removal of the support structures, also referred to as anchors. A well-designed part can greatly reduce the need for this support material, which dramatically reduces cost.

Good methods of DfAM can add value to products by making them substantially lighter in weight and enhancing performance using topology optimization, generative design, and lattice structures. Conventionally manufactured products made up of many simple parts can be redesigned to consolidate the assembly into a single part. This reduces part numbers, inventory, and assembly costs. Using methods of mass-customization, products can conform to the individual needs of customers without substantially increasing cost. Knowing how and when to use these techniques require designers and engineers to learn how to design for AM.

One of the biggest barriers to the widespread adoption of AM is the lack of knowledge and skills among the design and engineering workforce. Only through DfAM education, training, and best practices will we see significant progress toward the use of AM for production applications. Some organizations are beginning to understand its importance, but a vast amount of work is ahead.

Editor’s note: Wohlers Associates is conducting a three-day course on DfAM in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, with Olaf Diegel as lead instructor. Click here to learn more.

Alan Parsons

June 3, 2018

Filed under: entertainment,event — Terry Wohlers @ 17:06

Note: Thanks to RØDE founder Peter Freedman and CEO Damien Wilson for connecting us with Alan Parsons. (Parsons uses world-class, award-winning microphones from RØDE. He will be gaining access to the latest 3D printing technology that RØDE and Wohlers Associates have been exploring. Some interesting new designs will be produced using an HP Jet Fusion machine, a system RØDE recently installed.)

If you grew up in the 1970s and like good rock ‘n roll music, you’re probably familiar with The Alan Parsons Project. Parsons is a musician, composer, record producer, and director. Among his band’s hits are Eye in the Sky, Games People Play, Sirius, and Time. My 31-song Spotify playlist includes music from the albums Tales of Mystery and Imagination, I Robot, Eye in the Sky, and others. I was introduced to Alan Parsons music in 1977 by good friend Gary James during our first year at the University of Nebraska at Kearney.

Parsons got his start at age 18 as an audio engineer at Abbey Road Studios in London. The 69-year-old Englishman engineered hit music with Paul McCartney, the Hollies, and Pink Floyd, including The Dark Side of the Moon. He was responsible for adding the brilliant saxophone part in Al Stewart’s Year of the Cat, which is a favorite. Last night’s concert at Levitt Pavilion in Denver, Colorado was the first in series of live performances this summer in the U.S, Mexico, Germany, and Poland. Alan Parsons is so incredibly talented and his band sounded fantastic.

My wife and good friends Bill and Stephanie Beyers were among a few people that spent time back stage with several of the band members. We talked with drummer Danny Thompson and guitarist Dan Tracey and Jeff Kollman, but spent the most time with keyboardist and Grammy Award winner Tom Brooks. We discussed the 3D printing of musical products and described the way the technology works. Our conversation with Parsons himself was brief, but good.

Alan Parsons and other rock legends will not be around forever. We lost Tom Petty and Glenn Frey before I got to see them perform live. My fear is that as these people and bands disappear, new rock ‘n roll musicians will not fill the void. Try to name one current-day rock band with several hits. Maybe a millennial can do it, but I cannot. In the meantime, we need to remind ourselves to take in live performances of renowned bands of the ‘70s such as the one last night.

Design for AM in Montreal

May 20, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,education — Terry Wohlers @ 13:28

Design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) is a key to unlocking the power of AM. Neglecting to understand its importance may present a problem for companies hoping to tap into the technology’s potential. It is quite possibly the most challenging piece of the AM puzzle and requires far more than what meets the eye.

To justify the use of AM for production applications, a well-advised company will perform an analysis on the cost to manufacture the design, both conventionally and by AM. Doing so can determine the “breakeven” point of AM versus a conventional method of manufacturing. The effort seeks to determine the volume at which it costs the same to make the part using either method. If you are producing parts up to the breakeven point, AM may be a candidate for production. The higher the breakeven point, the more attractive AM usually becomes.

If a design is not modified for AM, the breakeven point may be too low, meaning that AM is probably not suitable. If a part or assembly is redesigned to take advantage of AM, the breakeven point may be higher, and in some cases, dramatically higher. Consider, for example, the possible economic impact of consolidating many individual parts into one, as shown in the following relatively simple example.

DfAM is the subject of a hands-on course being offered June 12-14, 2018 in Montreal, Canada. Up to 20 practicing professionals will gather to learn the latest tools and methods of part consolidation, topology optimization, lattice structures, and biomimicry. The course will uncover important design rules and guidelines (e.g., thinnest walls and smallest holes possible, depending on the process and material), part orientation, and support material. These elements of design can impact build time, cost, and trial ‘n error. They can result in a reduction in the number of suppliers, manufacturing processes, tooling, inventory, assembly, labor, maintenance, and certification paperwork. Good DfAM tools and methods result in parts that use less material and are lighter in weight, with scrap reduced to a minimum.

Wohlers Associates and the Québec Industrial Research Centre (CRIQ) have partnered to offer this important DfAM course. If you want to benefit from what AM has to offer for production applications, contact Martin Lavoie at dfammtl2018@gmail.com to register for the course.

Small Batch Production at Avid

May 8, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 10:35

Note: Ray Huff, intern at Wohlers Associates, authored the following.

Two weeks ago, I visited Avid Product Development, a design, prototyping, and small batch manufacturing firm in Loveland, Colorado. In recent years, Avid has strategically invested in additive manufacturing equipment to scale part production for its customers. Among these technologies are material extrusion machines from Stratasys, photopolymer-based printers from Formlabs, and Multi Jet Fusion machines from HP.

The number of end-use parts being manufactured by Avid makes the company stand out. Doug Collins, co-owner of Avid, commented that the addition of the HP equipment has greatly increased the company’s capacity for building production parts. Recently, Avid received an order for 100 parts that were designed for injection molding. CNC machining the parts was an option, but it would have taken too much time, been very expensive, and wasted a lot of material. Instead, they were 3D printed overnight, dyed black, and shipped the next day. Nesting software from Materialise was used to reduce print time, and fast cooling on the HP post-processing station helped to speed things along. With some added sweat and hustle, the team had the parts out the door as promised.

Doug was eager to show us parts made for Vestas, a leading manufacturer of large wind turbines for power generation. Vestas ordered a batch of polymer brackets that are permanently attached to the wind turbine blades to aid in the alignment and assembly of the parts. Wanting to test the designs before production, Vestas sent multiple iterations for Avid to build. Once the designs were finalized, orders were placed for hundreds of parts to bridge the gap of time while injection-mold tooling was being produced.

Weeks before the visit, a friend had sent me a threaded leveling foot for her new kitchen stove. The feet were designed for low countertops, and were 50 mm (2 inches) too short for the stove to be level with her countertop. I redesigned the foot, sent the model to Avid, picked up the four parts when I visited, and mailed them to my friend in California. The parts fit perfectly. The project showed me that in a matter of days, parts can be designed for a new application, produced, and tested across multiple cities and teams. In future cases like this one, we could further iterate based on feedback, if necessary, and then produce a small production batch of the part. We could even market the product and manufacture it on demand, without a need to keep a single physical part in stock.

Avid and other companies are making workflows like this possible for single product designers and companies of all sizes. Many organizations have been doing this for 20+ years, but easier access to good tools and machines, combined with a decline in cost, is what makes it different today. 3D printing is opening the door to countless new business opportunities and startup companies that were previously unthinkable.

Important Events in AM

April 22, 2018

Last week, I attended the 20th Annual FIRPA Conference in Espoo, Finland, which is about 20 km (12 miles) from Helsinki. The event included some excellent presentations, including one from Jonas Eriksson of Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB. Eriksson discussed the production of parts by additive manufacturing for land-based gas turbine engines. To date, the company has redesigned many parts for metal AM and used the technology to produce more than 1,000 burner tips. The use of AM has resulted in a time reduction from 26 weeks to just three. As many as 60 people are now focused on AM at the company, with a goal of making metal AM as simple as 2D printing on paper.

Another very interesting presentation was given by Jyrki Saarinen of the University of Eastern Finland. His group worked closely with Dutch company Luxexcel to produce an AM machine with 1,000 inkjet nozzles for the printing of optical lenses in PMMA. The surface finish of the printed lenses is <2 nm RMS (less than 2 billionths of a meter), so no post-processing is required. The machine is capable of producing 40 lenses per hour, each measuring 10 mm in diameter x 2.5 mm in height, so the process is relatively fast.

I also had the privilege of visiting two world-class companies in Finland. The first was KONE, an $11 billion manufacturer of elevators, escalators, exterior revolving doors, and security entrances for commercial buildings. The company and its products are impressive. I also visited UPM, a $12.3 billion company with a strong position in paper, pulp, plywood, composites, and bio products. The company recently entered the AM industry by introducing a material extrusion filament product consisting of cellulose fiber and PLA.

Last week’s trip to Finland could not have gone better, thanks to the fine people that organized the meetings and very successful 20th annual conference. This week, the focus is on RAPID + TCT 2018, which begins tomorrow and goes through Thursday in Fort Worth, Texas. This event marks the 26th annual conference and exposition, and I’m proud to say that I have not missed a single one of them. Attendance has grown by ~2.3 times over the past four years and exhibit space has grown by ~4.5 times over the same period. If you are interested in attending one of the very best events in all things additive manufacturing, 3D printing, and 3D scanning, go to Fort Worth this week. You will not regret it.

AM at NATO?

April 8, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 16:26

Note: Bob Appleton, president of RW Appleton & Company, Inc., authored the following.

Obstacles to adopting additive manufacturing (AM) in any large organization are well known. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) faces additional challenges due to the diversity of its 29-nation membership. Each has its own policies and procedures and is at a different stage of adoption.

In 2016, the NATO Allied Command Transformation unit formed an AM Community of Interest (COI) consisting of leading voices and technical experts across the alliance. Its purpose is to coordinate AM efforts among member nations and share progress. The COI is exploring potential AM use cases and examining relevant standards. It is also reviewing necessary data security measures and interoperability within NATO’s environment.

The COI has swiftly addressed NATO’s issues. First, COI members participated in the U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored AM Business Process Wargame, which explored complex business practices necessary for AM use in the military. The COI also published a report detailing current standards applicable to AM.

The COI and its members maintain high-tempo participation in AM events. Drawing on experience from the Norwegian Ministry of Defense (MOD) and the U.S. Marine Corps, the COI is exploring expeditionary logistics applications. The Marine Corps demonstrated its “ExFab,” a self-contained transportable 3D printing facility, to NATO at its meeting in October 2017. This year, the Norwegian MOD will demonstrate a similar capability.

COI members will participate in NATO meetings in Germany, Italy, and the U.S., as well as NATO exercises in Norway and Poland. A study will include member nation AM activities and a roadmap proposing the way forward for AM at NATO. The COI will study blockchain as a potential security enhancement, as well as lessons from the experiences of Estonia, the most connected nation in the world. This month, the COI will be represented at RAPID + TCT 2018 in Fort Worth, Texas.

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