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Friends

December 1, 2018

Filed under: life — Terry Wohlers @ 06:20

What would we do without them? They give us so much. Friends ski, hike, bike, hunt, and fish together. And, sometimes, they get into deep and interesting discussions when traveling together. They hang out, tell jokes, and laugh together. They are there when one is in need of an ear. I can’t imagine life without them.

This week was rough. The world lost a great person and friend, Dave Tait, on November 27. He was a friend—and a very good one—of nearly 30 years. I met Dave in or around 1990. He was a pioneer in additive manufacturing and 3D printing when few people knew what it was. Dave and his company, Laserform, pushed the limits of the technology in the 1990s and helped countless companies adopt it for a range of useful applications.

I admired Dave for his early work in AM, but also for his work ethic, passion, and support of family and friends. I looked up to him for his upbeat attitude and demeanor. Dave knew how to bring out the best in people. His smile and words of kindness, even to strangers, were contagious. I told myself many times over that I wanted to be like him.

Some of my very best memories of Dave are from our times together in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. For a string of many years, we skied together, along with our family and friends. I will forever miss those great times with him. If only we could ski together and hang out one more time.

Dave taught many people a great deal. What I learned most recently from him is to never take friends for granted, nor forget who they are, and to spend as much time as possible with them. Friends are precious. A mutual friend once said, “Live each day as if it is your last.” I believe he meant to live life to it fullest each and every day because none of us know what the future holds.

RAPDASA and Formnext

November 17, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,education,event — Terry Wohlers @ 17:11

I attended last week’s 19th annual conference and exhibition of the Rapid Product Development Association of South Africa (RAPDASA) in Johannesburg. About 220 people attended from several countries. The RAPDASA organization does a fantastic job with the event year after year, and this year was no exception. (I’ve attended all 19 of them.) Thanks to the fine people at Resolution Circle and the University of Johannesburg for hosting the event, and many others who worked hard to make it a success. Pictured in the following image are Ian van Zyl and Deon de Beer, both of Central University of Technology (CUT), and Amelia Du Toit of Lonmin, and me. CUT and Lonmin are a part of an interesting project named PlatForum, which involves the development and 3D printing of parts in platinum.

This week was Formnext, a trade fair in Frankfurt, Germany, which included much of the best in additive manufacturing products and services worldwide. An estimated 26,919 people and 632 exhibitors filled two large exhibition halls at Messe Frankfurt. AM machines and parts dominated, but design software products for AM and post-processing machinery were also in abundance at this year’s fourth annual event. The development of end-to-end process chains has never been more important and it was evident. The following image shows the XJet exhibit—one of the many impressive displays at Formnext.

On November 14 at Formnext, a half-day Additive Manufacturing Standards Forum was held. It was initiated by America Makes and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) with support from the U.S. Department of Commerce’s U.S. Commercial Service in Düsseldorf. The purpose of the half-day session was to bring together key stakeholders and others to provide an update, answer questions, and discuss AM standards development worldwide. I had the privilege of moderating the session. The following shows the organizations that supported the event.

An important part of this session was the presentation of the America Makes and ANSI Standardization Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing (Version 2.0) and the Additive Manufacturing Standardization Collaborative (AMSC). Both could have a long-term impact on the adoption of AM around the world.

After 14 days on four continents, it was nice to return to Colorado. I like to meet with friends and make new ones, but it’s also good to be home with family and friends, especially over the holidays. (Thanksgiving is next week in the U.S.) The ski season is underway, so it’s time to visit the high country to take part in a sport that is relaxing and exhilarating. It’s a great compliment to a full and rewarding year of travel and work.

AM in Formula One

November 3, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,event — Terry Wohlers @ 09:26

Note: Research associate Ray Huff authored the following.

Two weeks ago, I attended the Circuit of the Americas Formula One race near Austin, Texas. I was a guest of Additive Industries, along with the Sauber Alfa Romeo team, for practice day at the track. The day was rainy, but spirits were high, and we enjoyed the spectacle of heavily-engineered race cars burning down the track at speeds of more than 322 km (200 miles) per hour.

We watched the race from the Paddock Club, an incredible location just above the garages. At midday, we toured the pits and watched the premier teams conducting pit stop practice, vehicle maintenance, and inspection. The greatest treat of all was to meet Charles Leclerc and Marcus Ericsson, drivers of the Sauber team. The two young men were charming, amicable, and laser-focused on their task when it was race time.

Formula One is an amazing use case for AM. Each car is effectively a custom product, with a new design each year. Performance is the number one priority, with an emphasis on stiffness and weight. The cars and drivers are supported by teams of hundreds of engineers, mechanics, and others. Team budgets famously soar in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars. Each F1 team is allowed to bring a maximum of 60 crew members on race day at each of their 21 races throughout the year. I was completely inspired and impressed at the amount of engineering involved in this sport, and look forward to more races in the future.

AM in Africa

October 21, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,CAD/CAM/CAE,education,event — Terry Wohlers @ 07:29

Yesterday, I recently returned from my 22nd visit to Africa. Twenty of them have been to South Africa where additive manufacturing activity is the strongest. In fact, I estimate that 99% of AM work on the continent has occurred in the country. Some limited activity is underway in Botswana, Egypt, Namibia, and Nigeria. Adoption has been especially strong at Central University of Technology, Vaal University of Technology, Stellenbosch University, and North-West University—all in South Africa.

The Government of South Africa has been supportive of AM, with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) doing the most in a hands-on way. Among the companies that are leading the way is Aerosud, an 800-person supplier of parts and assemblies to Airbus and Boeing. Many other companies are benefiting from AM parts, but they do not own high-end equipment. A reseller network of companies for AM products has been in place for many years.

Central University of Technology (CUT) in Bloemfontein was the first to install multiple high-end industrial machines in South Africa. Its world-class Centre for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing (CRPM), shown in the following two images, continues to have the largest commercial impact in the country. Last year, the CRPM completed 580 projects consisting of ~13,500 AM parts. Twenty-five percent of the projects were medical cases, most of high complexity. The centre received ISO 13485 quality certification for medical devices in 2016, which has contributed to its capabilities.

CUT and its impressive CRPM served as host to last week’s three-day course on design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) conducted by Wohlers Associates. Twenty-five engineers and others participated, and many were advanced in their knowledge and experience in AM and DfAM when they arrived. Wohlers Associates has conducted many of these courses, the first in August 2015 for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. One exercise involved the redesign of a manifold by the participants on the first day. Five of them were manufactured in titanium and delivered for inspection by the third day. Thanks to our good friends at the CRPM for helping to make this happen.

The previous images show the conventional manifold design (left) and five versions of the manifold produced by AM. One of the primary objectives of this hands-on, DfAM exercise was to reduce weight and substantially reduce or eliminate the need for support material, which can add substantial time and cost to a part. We are thankful to those who participated, for how engaging they were, and for their favorable feedback. It was one of our very best three-day DfAM courses. Thanks also to CUT and its CRPM for organizing the event and serving as such great hosts.

AM in the U.S. Military

October 9, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,future,life — Terry Wohlers @ 05:37

I had the great privilege of spending most of last Thursday at the Pentagon, and what I learned was encouraging. The U.S. Department of Defense has advanced its use of additive manufacturing beyond what I had anticipated. I gained a better understanding of what the military is doing and where it hopes to take AM in the future. More than anything, it made me proud to be an American because these people are incredibly bright and passionate about AM.

I met with 25 people from the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and, Navy, as well as various groups within them. They fully understand the consequences of not being prepared and responsive to our adversaries. Suppose one of them took out our supply of spare parts for equipment, vehicles, and weapons. The nation would be crippled and entirely vulnerable to the worst possible scenario. Envision instead a manufacturing capacity so diverse and distributed that it would be impossible to find the thousands of organizations, some very small, that are a part of it. As odd as it may seem, an obscure bait shop that produces custom fishing gear could operate 3D printers and produce parts for DoD.

Those at the Pentagon understand the challenges, most of which revolve around tradition, culture, and people. Humans are creatures of habit and change does not come easily. The procurement process, alone, can be daunting, especially for the smallest defense contractors. Joe’s Bait Shop can process credit cards, but it may not have the personnel or tolerance to process the paperwork required by most DoD-related contracts. The people at the Pentagon are working to address this problem.

Even with the issues that the military face in more fully adopting AM technology, I am optimistic. Individuals, such as Captain Matthew Friedell of the Marine Corps (pictured with me in the following image at the Pentagon), are sharp and among our nation’s best. After hours at the Pentagon, I can say without reservation that we are in very good hands. They do not have all of the answers, but they’ve identified most of the problems. Thank God we have men and women like them, and I sincerely thank them for what they do to keep our nation safe and secure.

Live Music

September 23, 2018

Filed under: entertainment,life — Terry Wohlers @ 18:05

It’s been a good year for live music. In June, my wife and friends and I saw Alan Parsons at Levitt Pavilion in Denver. A client, RØDE Microphones of Sydney, Australia, knows Alan, so we met him and the band after the concert. The entire evening was a great experience. In July, a friend and I saw the Robert Cray Band at the relatively small but impressive Washington’s music venue in Fort Collins. The blues guitarist and singer gave a solid performance. Last month, we saw Blondie at NewWestFest in Fort Collins. Like Alan Parsons, Blondie was especially popular in the mid 1970s with a number of hits.

Last night, my wife and I, and ~45,000 others, were treated to several hours of music at Petco Park in downtown San Diego. The concert started in the late afternoon with the Doobie Brothers—a band I’ve always wanted to see. Zac Brown followed, and both were excellent. Zac definitely attracted a younger generation to the stadium.

The highlight of the evening was seeing and hearing the Eagles for the first time, another band I’ve always wanted to see. As expected, Don Henley, Joe Walsh, and Timothy B. Schmidt were a central part of the performance. The only unfortunate part of it was not seeing Glenn Frey (he died in January 2016 at the young age of 67), but we were treated to Glenn’s 25-year-old son, Deacon. He and country singer and songwriter Vince Gill sang Glenn’s songs, and both did a great job. Like his father, Deacon is an outstanding musician and vocalist. He became a permanent member of the band more than a year ago.

I’m finding that one should not wait too long to see an artist or band. I wanted to see Tom Petty, but that will never happen. It also occurred to me that rock ‘n roll groups are not emerging like they did in the past. In fact, it’s difficult to name even three that have become popular in the past 10 years. For our generation, now is the time to see live classic rock before it’s too late.

Footwear from Wiivv

September 9, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,review — Terry Wohlers @ 08:38

The idea of 3D-printed footwear is appealing. The technology makes it possible to affordably print custom parts that make up the product. Recent history shows that customers are willing to pay a premium for products that have been designed specifically for them. I have many personalized, 3D-printed products, and they are of more value to me than other products. What’s more, I will never get rid of any of them, which is something I cannot say about most other products.

Recently, I received personalized insoles and sandals from Wiivv, a young company that has already shipped more than 50,000 pairs of custom products. The insoles, shown in the following (left), includes a custom, gray part made in nylon by powder bed fusion. I have dedicated them to my dress shoes that I wear at formal events. In fact, I wore them Friday night at a wedding and walked and stood on them for hours without sitting and my feet felt good the entire evening.

For about three weeks, I have been wearing sandals from Wiivv in the office. I have a sit-stand workstation and stand about 70-80% of each day. The sandals took 2–3 days to break in, especially in the area of the arch. In the middle and right images, notice the gray, custom 3D-printed part, along with the arch pocket into which the part is inserted. Both arches felt overly firm in the beginning, but are now comfortable. The straps lock into the sole and can be adjusted for fit and comfort.

When ordering insoles or sandals from Wiivv, a special phone app is used that steps you through the process. It was easy and took no longer than about 15 minutes total. The app prompts you to stand against a wall on a white, 8.5 x 11-inch sheet of paper, and asks you to shoot images from various angles. The company could not have made the measuring and ordering process much easier.

The look and feel of the materials and workmanship of the Wiivv products are of high quality. It’s too soon to know how long they will last, but I have no reason to believe they will not hold up for years. The price of custom, full-length insoles is $99, while custom sandals are $129, both of which are reasonable, in my view. I recommend them highly.

3D-Printed Food

August 26, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,life — Terry Wohlers @ 10:58

The idea of 3D-printed food came in or around 2011 when Hod Lipson and his team at Cornell University produced some crude but intriguing examples. The team showed that it was possible to use a syringe-based material extrusion-based 3D printer to deposit cheese, peanut butter, chocolate, and other types of foods. The objects clearly demonstrated the concept.

In 2014, 3D Systems introduced its ChefJet 3D printer for making candy and other food items. Some time later, the machine was quietly removed from the market after the company found that few people wanted it.

On Friday, I attended the First International Symposium on Precision Nutrition and Food 3D Printing Science and Technology in Beijing, China. The event was the first of its type. Prof. Jack Zhou of Drexel University co-organized it with Hong Zhang of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, which is China’s version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. I wanted to attend the event to better understand where the technology and its application might go in the future. Few in attendance had combined expertise in nutrition, food, and 3D printing technology. The disciplines are currently pretty far apart, but they are slowly coming together, as illustrated in the following.

Potential market opportunities are specialty food products such as custom chocolates and candies for weddings, anniversaries, birthdays, and special corporate events. At the conference, the following edible items were each printed in a few minutes each. The Wohlers Associates logo (left) was printed using a mixture of white beans, starch, sugar, and water. The decorative pancake at the right tasted surprisingly good.

The 3D printing of food may be a solution looking for a problem. Applying nutrition to the concept may have merit. Making soft foods for babies and the elderly is a potential area of development, although I am not convinced that 3D printing offers an advantage. Maybe. At the conference, it was decided to form an international association on the subject. After dinner on Friday, many of the organizers and attendees met to initiate the new organization. We will see if it can help take the 3D printing of food to a new level.

3D-Printed Guns

August 11, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing,legal — Terry Wohlers @ 05:29

With the “green light” looming for the 3D printing of guns on July 31, I was contacted by CNN, ABC7 News (San Francisco), and others. In two days, I conducted the following interviews, as well as two others:

I’m hopeful the interviews will help to educate our nation’s policy makers and the less-informed public on the realities of 3D-printed guns. Making it legal is not a good idea on a number of levels. First and foremost, it’s just plain dangerous. In 2013, soon after the idea of plastic 3D-printed guns was introduced, the Australian police 3D-printed two of them. When fired, both exploded. Watch the video.

Second, the 3D printing of guns sidesteps background checks and a registration process, making it impossible to track the firearms and their owners. And third, it is possible to 3D print the parts of a gun and then assemble them on the other side of security, whether it’s at a government office, sports arena, airport, or somewhere else. The individual plastic pieces would not resemble the parts of gun and may not be detected when being scanned.

In the afternoon of July 31, a Seattle judge granted a temporary restraining order to block the release of the files of guns on the Internet. A day earlier, eight states and the District of Columbia sued to block the publication of the files. The bottom line: the 3D printing of guns is a bad idea.

Growth of AM Service Providers

July 29, 2018

Filed under: 3D printing,additive manufacturing — Terry Wohlers @ 17:54

Note: The following was excerpted from Wohlers Report 2018.

Independent service providers worldwide generated an estimated $2.955 billion from the sale of parts produced by additive manufacturing systems in 2017. This is up 36% from the $2.173 billion reported for 2016.

The previous graph shows service provider revenue estimates (in millions of dollars) for the past 24 years. The bars represent only primary revenues, which are from parts produced on AM equipment. They do not include revenues from secondary processes, such as tooling, parts made from this tooling, castings, or CNC-machined parts. Also, they exclude design, engineering, CAD/CAM/CAE, and all other services.

Details on Wohlers Report 2018 are available here.

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