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Wohlers Report 2020

Analysis. Trends. Forecasts. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing State of the Industry 2020 Wohlers Report.






Photographs and Illustrations

Wohlers Report 2020 provides a worldwide review and analysis of additive manufacturing and 3D printing. This edition marks the 25th consecutive year of publication.

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ISBN 978-0-9913332-6-4

The report has served as the undisputed, industry-leading report on AM for more than two decades. Many refer to it as the “bible” of 3D printing. It is available in digital and printed/bound formats, both in full color.

New and expanded features of the 2020 edition include:

  • Maturing and emerging applications of AM for series production
  • Review of AM in the dental industry
  • Commentary on 79 early-stage investments valued at $1.1 billion
  • Compilation of 71 industry partnerships in the recent past
  • Expert reports from 35 countries
  • Tables of systems, third-party materials, software tools, and emerging technologies

The report was supported by a record number of 129 service providers, 114 manufacturers of industrial AM systems, and 40 producers of third-party materials and desktop 3D printers. It documents government-sponsored research and development, collaborations and consortia, and the activities of 139 academic and research institutes around the world.

The report has benefited from the important contributions of 78 co-authors and contributors in 33 countries. Wohlers Associates is fortunate to have developed what is believed to be the largest worldwide network of professionals in the industry. This access and trust has resulted in a report that offers an unparalleled window into additive manufacturing and 3D printing.

The 380-page Wohlers Report 2020 includes 42 charts and graphs, 168 tables, and 377 images and illustrations. It also includes more than 145 pages of supplemental online content available exclusively to the buyers of the report.

Over the past three years, the report has been published in mid or late March. It includes a wealth of detailed information on the previous 12 months, along with data and trend lines that span more than 30 years.

Wohlers Report 2020 provides a worldwide review and analysis of additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing. This edition marks the 25th consecutive year of publication.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • About the principal authors
    • Associate authors


  • Focus of this report
  • Introduction to AM and 3D printing
  • History of additive manufacturing
    • 1960s to the modern era
    • April 2019 to March 2020
  • Industries, applications, and regions
    • Industries
    • Applications
    • Installations by country
  • Medical applications
    • Personalization of surgery using AM
    • AM for serial implant manufacturing
  • Dental applications
    • Metal parts
    • Ceramic applications
    • Fixation devices
    • Metal castings
    • Drill guides
    • Dental models
    • Orthodontic aligners
    • Other developments
  • Applications in architecture and construction
    • Construction of full-scale buildings
    • Using AM to produce individual parts
    • Architectural models
  • Growth of CAD solid modeling


  • Processes
    • Material extrusion
    • Material jetting
    • Binder jetting
    • Sheet lamination
    • Vat photopolymerization
    • Powder bed fusion
    • Directed energy deposition
  • Materials
    • Polymers
    • New polymer products
    • Polymer pricing
    • Metals
    • New metal powders and related developments
    • Making metal powders for AM
    • Water-atomized metal powders for AM
    • Pricing of metal powders
    • Composites and hybrid materials
    • Materials for metal-casting processes
    • Ceramics and other materials
  • Third-party Material Producers
    • Open vs. Closed material business models
    • List of third-party producers
    • Process/material matrix
  • Materials database
    • Materials by process
    • Materials producers and products
    • Additional data


  • Revenue from AM worldwide
    • Products and services
    • Growth percentages
  • System manufacturers
    • Unit sales
    • Unit sales growth percentages
    • Market shares
    • Systems sold by region
    • Average selling price
    • Metal AM systems
    • Unit sales by manufacturer and year
  • Desktop 3D printers
    • Growth
    • Average selling price
  • AM material sales
    • Photopolymers
    • Polymer powders
    • Filaments
    • Metals
  • Investment in publicly traded companies
    • Revenues and earnings
    • Outlook
  • Service providers
    • Primary service market
    • Service provider survey
    • Contributing service providers
    • Survey results
    • Pre- and post-processing
    • Most popular AM technologies
    • Most profitable material
    • Revenue growth
    • Online marketplaces
    • Supplier competition
    • Comments from service providers


  • Applications
    • Aerospace
    • Medical and dental
    • Footwear
    • Motor vehicles
  • Benefits of AM for production
    • Elimination of tooling
    • On-demand manufacturing and lead time reduction
    • Inventory reduction and part consolidation
    • Sustainability and waste reduction
    • Mass customization
    • Generative design and biomimicry
    • Optimized structures
  • Design for additive manufacturing
    • Part consolidation
    • Reduction of support material and post-processing
    • Weight reduction and topology optimization
    • Lattice structures
    • Conformal cooling and improved fluid flow
    • Cost benefits of DfAM
  • AM-related software
    • Design and optimization
    • 3D scan-processing software
    • Repair
    • Simulation
    • Slicing and print preparation
    • Print management
    • MES
    • Security
  • Process monitoring in metal powder bed fusion
    • Aconity3D
    • EOS
    • GE Additive
    • Renishaw
    • SLM Solutions
    • Sigma Labs
    • UTC
    • Velo3D
    • Outlook
  • Post-processing
    • Post-processing of polymer parts
    • Surface treatment of polymer parts
    • Post-processing of metal parts
    • Thermal processing of metal parts
    • Metal support material removal
    • Metal surface treatment
    • Metal part inspection
  • Challenges
    • Running costs
    • Cost justification
    • Machine throughput
    • Metal part production cost considerations
    • Certification and quality assurance
    • Changing organizational culture
    • Educating designers


  • Africa
    • South Africa
  • Asia/Pacific
    • China
    • India
    • Japan
    • Korea
    • Singapore
    • Taiwan
  • Australasia
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • Europe
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Denmark
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Hungary
    • Italy
    • Netherlands
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Russia
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Turkey
    • United Kingdom
  • Middle East
    • Egypt
    • Iran
    • Israel
    • United Arab Emirates
  • Other regions
    • Brazil
    • Canada


  • Trends
  • Patents
    • IP strategies
    • Patent enforcement
    • 3D-printed guns
  • Corporate R&D
  • Consortia and collaborations
    • America Makes
    • Additive Manufacturing Consortium
    • Direct Manufacturing Research Center
    • Project TEAMM
    • Partnerships
  • AM standards
    • ASTM Committee F42
    • ISO/TC 261
  • AM Activities at NASA
  • AM in the U.S. Department of Defense
  • U.S. government-sponsored R&D
    • National Science Foundation
    • Basic research on AM technology
    • DOD, DOE, and DOC
    • National Institutes of Health
  • U.S. national laboratories
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    • Sandia National Laboratories
  • Government-sponsored R&D in Europe
  • Academic activities and capabilities
    • AM educational activities
    • Research innovations
    • Asia/Pacific
    • Europe
    • North America
    • Other regions
    • Research institutes with AM capabilities
    • Future trends and contributions


  • Emerging applications and industry trends
    • Custom products for consumers
    • Development of metal AM
    • Adoption of AM in healthcare
    • Development of software tools for AM
  • Landscape of AM startups
  • Startups and early-stage investments
  • New AM machine developments
  • Market opportunity and forecast
    • Global manufacturing economy
    • Series manufacturing technology
  • Summary


  • China
    • Bright Laser Technologies
    • CTC
    • Eplus 3D
    • Farsoon
    • Huake 3D
    • Intamsys
    • Longyuan
    • Raycham
    • Tiertime
    • TPM3D
    • UnionTech
    • ZRapid
  • Japan
    • Aspect
    • CMET
    • D-MEC
    • Keyence
    • Matsuura
    • Mimaki
    • Ricoh
    • Sodick
  • Other companies in Asia/Pacific
    • Asiga
    • Carima
    • InssTek
    • MicroJet Technology
    • ROKIT Healthcare
    • SPEE3D
    • XYZprinting
  • Germany
    • Arburg
    • BigRep
    • Coherent
    • DMG Mori
    • Envisiontec
    • EOS
    • German RepRap
    • Nanoscribe
    • Rapid Shape
    • SLM Solutions
    • Trumpf
    • Voxeljet
  • Other companies in Europe and the Middle East
    • 3DCeram
    • Additive Industries
    • AddUp
    • Admatec
    • BeAM
    • Digital Metal
    • DWS
    • Hage3D
    • Lithoz
    • Massivit
    • Nano Dimension
    • Norsk Titanium
    • Prodways
    • Renishaw
    • Roboze
    • Sharebot
    • Sinterit
    • Sintratec
    • Sisma
    • Stratasys
    • XJet
  • U.S.
    • 3D Platform
    • 3D Systems
    • Carbon
    • Cincinnati
    • Desktop Metal
    • ExOne
    • Fabrisonic
    • Formlabs
    • GE Additive
    • HP
    • Markforged
    • nScrypt
    • Optomec
    • Rize
    • Sciaky
    • Solidscape
  • Additional system manufacturers
  • Manufacturer, process, and material matrix
  • Desktop 3D printers


  • Appendix A: Glossary of terms
  • Appendix B: 1988-2006 unit sales
  • Appendix C: Metal AM comparison matrix
  • Appendix D: 3D scanning systems

Report Development Team

Principal authors:

Ian Campbell, Wohlers Associates, Inc. (UK)
Olaf Diegel, Wohlers Associates, Inc. (New Zealand)
Ray Huff, Wohlers Associates, Inc. (U.S.)
Joseph Kowen, Wohlers Associates, Inc. (Israel)
Terry Wohlers, Wohlers Associates, Inc. (U.S.)

Associate authors:

David Bourell, University of Texas at Austin (U.S.)
Ismail Fidan, Tennessee Tech University (U.S.)
Peter Sander, Airbus (Germany)

The following 79 individuals and organizations in 33 countries contributed to Wohlers Report 2020 and served as important sources for information.

Mukesh Agarwala 3D Product Development India
Joe Aiken William Blair & Company U.S.
Emily Allison Callaghan Innovation New Zealand
Henrique Almeida Polytechnic Institute of Leiria Portugal
Nicolae Balc Technical University of Cluj–Napoca Romania
Mark Barfoot EWI U.S.
Alain Bernard Ecole Centrale de Nantes France
Kris Binon Flam3D Belgium
Klas Boivie SINTEF Norway
Gerrie Booysen Central University of Technology South Africa
Milan Brandt RMIT University Australia
Andy Christensen Somaden LLC U.S.
Chee Kai Chua Singapore University of Technology and Design Singapore
Mel Cossette Edmonds Community College U.S.
Deon de Beer Central University of Technology South Africa
Frank Defalco Next Generation Manufacturing Canada
Thierry Dormal Sirris Belgium
Brian Drab William Blair & Company U.S.
Igor Drstvenšek University of Maribor Slovenia
Khalid Abd Elghany Central Metallurgical R&D Institute Egypt
Claus Emmelmann Fraunhofer IAPT Germany
Sten Farre RISE Swecast AB Sweden
Elizabeth Ferrill Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner U.S.
Matthew Friedell Big Metal Additive LLC U.S.
Arno Held AM Ventures Germany
Michael Hickner Pennsylvania State University U.S.
Diedre Hirschfeld Sandia National Laboratories U.S.
Lars Holmegaard Danish AM Hub Denmark
Jeng-Ywan Jeng National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Tech. Taiwan
Malika Khodja TIZIRI South Africa
Babak Kianian Lund University Sweden
Philipp Kohlwes Fraunhofer IAPT Germany
Jaroslaw Kotlinski University of Technology and Humanities Poland
Art Kracke AAK Consulting U.S.
Jörg Lenz EOS GmbH Germany
Feng Lin Tsinghua University China
Christian Lindemann Direct Manufacturing Research Center Germany
Giorgio Magistrelli A3DM Magazine France
Simon Marriott IMCRC – Innovative Manufacturing Cooperative Research Center Australia
László Máthé EbK Hungary
Spike Milligan Mimic3D U.S.
Hein Moller TIZIRI South Africa
Tom Mueller Mueller AMS U.S.
Randall Newton Consilia Vektor U.S.
Hideaki Oba 3D Printing Industry Technology Association Japan
John Obielodan University of Wisconsin–Platteville U.S.
Charles Overy LGM U.S.
Bene Padovani Additive Manufacturing Consultancy Brazil
Keun Park Seoul National Univ. of Science and Tech. Korea
Joris Peels 3DPrint.com Netherlands
Burak S. Pekcan +90 Turkey
William Peter Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.
Sebastian Piegert Siemens Gas and Power GmbH & Co. KG Germany
Michele Pressacco LimaCorporate Italy
Michael Raphael Direct Dimensions U.S.
Steffen Ritter Reutlingen University Germany
David Rosen Singapore University of Technology and Design Singapore
Boris Salamakhin Independent Russia
Elisa Salatin LimaCorporate Italy
Mika Salmi Aalto University Finland
Marco Salvisberg GF Precicast Additive SA Switzerland
P Randall Schunk Sandia National Laboratories U.S.
Luke Scime Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.
Christian Seidel Fraunhofer IGCV Germany
Jorge Silva Renato Archer Information Technology Center Brazil
Zach Simkin Senvol U.S.
Aidan Skoyles Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner U.S.
Kinga Skrzek University of Technology and Humanities Poland
John Slotwinski John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory U.S.
Chris Spadaccini Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S.
Adriaan Spierings Inspire Switzerland
Jürgen Stampfl Vienna University of Technology Austria
Riccardo Toninato LimaCorporate Italy
Joel Vasco Polytechnic Institute of Leiria Portugal
John Vickers NASA U.S.
Nicole Wake Montefiore Medical Center U.S.
John Wilczynski America Makes U.S.
David Wimpenny Manufacturing Technology Centre UK
Naiara Zubizarreta AddiMAT Spain

What Others are Saying

“The Wohlers Report is the guide I always keep at hand for consultation. It is really a vade mecum for those looking for an edge in an increasingly complex industry to navigate.”
Gianluca Mattaroccia, Engineering Fellow, The Estée Lauder Companies

“I have pored over thousands of pages of the Wohlers Report.”
Jeff Immelt, New Enterprise Associates and former CEO of General Electric

“No report is more detailed, more comprehensive, more all-around knowledgeable than the Wohlers Report. The release of a new installment of the Wohlers Report is always a momentous day in 3D printing, and this year is no exception as the 2018 report arrives today.”
Clare Scott, 3DPrint.com

“Anyone with serious interest in professional 3D printing should be reading the Wohlers Report. There’s no better resource for anyone in the business of digital fabrication. It is the industry bible.”
Mike Senece, Executive Editor, Make: magazine

“Congratulations on the 2017 report. Again, a masterpiece.”
Jos Burger, CEO, Ultimaker

“In the world of additive manufacturing, Wohlers is both a legend and visionary. He understands the trends and opportunities provided by the technology like no other and is willing to share his insights.”
Peter Sander, Head of Emerging Technologies and Concepts, Airbus

“With over two decades of quality data, the Wohlers Associates team has become the gold standard for computing growth, analyzing trends, and forecasting the future of additive manufacturing.”
Tyler Koslow, 3D Printing Industry

“The report is regarded as the most comprehensive, most reliable collection of information and analysis on the global market for the industry.”
Brent Balinski, Manufacturers’ Monthly

“Why waste time and money when you can get a worldwide overview of additive manufacturing from Wohlers Associates—experts that have focused on AM for 26 years. Wohlers Report 2014 is worth every dollar.”
Peter Sander, Vice President, Airbus Germany

“For those unfamiliar with this technology or looking for details on the players, markets, applications, and forecasts, I recommend the industry’s ‘bible’ from Wohlers.”
Mark Mills, Forbes

“This publication is widely considered the gold standard on the industry, as Terry Wohlers is the leading authority on 3-D printing.”
Beth McKenna, The Motley Fool

“Comprehensive and authoritative, the Wohlers Report is an extraordinary compilation of information on additive manufacturing and 3D printing. It is a must read for those that want more than a cursory understanding of this incredible and rapidly changing technology.”
Ed Morris, Director, America Makes – National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute

“Meet the man behind it and his growing team of associates, understand his broad experience, comprehensive knowledge and vast contact network and it becomes glaringly obvious as to why this is still the go-to report for steady, realistic, and reliable insight into the 3D printing industry.”
Rachel Park, Editor-in-Chief, 3D Printing Industry

“… Wohlers, the industry’s highest profile expert.”
Alexander Eule, Barron’s

“More than just the bible of 3D printing, it is the New Testament as well as the Old Testament. We can’t think of another industry where a single source has such a compelling handle on the entire scope of industry trends.”
Citron Research

“Absolutely fascinating report! It has had a profound impact on my research, and it is defintely the “go to” document for its breadth and depth of AM activity around the globe.”
Brett Conner, Associate Professor, Youngstown State University

“The 2013 report is excellent and perhaps the best I’ve ever seen on an emerging technology. The level of detail is amazing.”
Owen McGarel, Lead Research Engineer, ITW Technology Center

“Now in its 18th year of publication (that’s right all you 3-D printing arrivistes, this stuff has been around for a while), the annual report describes a healthy and growing market for 3-D printing equipment, services, materials and processes, albeit one where the value continues to accrue to industrial applications.”
Michael Copeland, Senior Editor, WIRED

“Wohlers has been tracking this industry for roughly a quarter-century, and recently published the 18th annual edition of the industry bible, Wohlers Report, which monitors developments in the sector.”
Robert Grace, Associate Publisher, Plastics News

“I have only barely put a dent in Wohlers Report 2013 and have all ready learned an incredible amount of useful information. The report definitely pays for itself by accelerating the additive manufacturing learning curve.”
Gary Baker, Com Dev USA

“I read an excerpt from the Wohlers Report and then spoke with Terry by phone. In less than 30 minutes, I had more industry insight than I had gleaned across dozens of blogs and news sites.”
TJ McCue, Forbes

“I received your report this week and I am completely impressed with the depth, variety, and detail. It will be an invaluable reference for the classes and presentations that I am currently developing for our division. It’s just MAGNIFICENT really!”
Jim Horton, CAD/CAM Systems Specialist, Central Piedmont Community College

“I love it. There is no other way to get such in-depth, relevant information that is also up to date. I have read through most of the report and it’s great work, Terry.”
Rob Connelly, President, FineLine Prototyping, Inc.

“The report is amazing.”
Michael Raphael, President, Direct Dimensions, Inc.

“It has become the bible in additive manufacturing.”
Mario Fleurinck, CEO, Melotte (Belgium)

“I can’t believe how much information from around the world you absorb and then present in such easy-to-understand terms year after year.”
Bene Padovani, Brazil

“Wow, you have really created a massive resource over the years. The contributions from the industry specialists have helped produce an industry encyclopedia.”
Randall Newton, Editor-in-Chief, CADCAMnet, and Editor-in-Chief and Publisher, AECnews

“The amount of information in the report is almost overwhelming. I am awed by its depth and breadth. What’s more, the information is not available anywhere else. For example, we hear how China is changing, but few people fully understand the transformation that’s underway. The report gives insight and clarification on China and it covers the rest of the world with the same careful analysis. It also provides insight into new products and applications that you normally would not hear about, such as light-weight structures, nanomanufacturing, growing organs, gaming, and new types of protective gear. One of the secrets of your success is the extensive travel worldwide, coupled with the information you seek from experts globally. Thank you for making something so remarkable available each year.”
Boris Fritz, Northrop Grumman

“It is taking some time to get through your report because I’m underlining all the useful information and using it in my company’s internal reports. Thanks, … it is really a fantastic job.”
Dr. Livia Cevolini, CRP Technology (Italy)

“The report is a real mine of information. It is impressive how you manage to collate all this information.”
Dr. Mike Shellabear, EOS (Germany)

“Terry Wohlers is the spokesperson for the overall rapid prototyping industry. Every year, he publishes the Wohlers Report, a comprehensive rundown of advances. He represents better than anyone else the mainstream prototyping industry.”
Dr. Preston Smith, Lead Co-author of Developing Products in Half the Time

“If you need to know anything about where this technology is today or where it is going tomorrow, Wohlers Report is your guide.”
Anthony J. Lockwood, former editorial director, Desktop Engineering

“Your report was very highly valued as we conducted our due diligence prior to acquiring Z Corp. It is highly professional and understandable, even to those new to this industry.”
Steen Borg, former CEO, The Contex Group (Denmark)

“I have purchased market reports in other industries for $30,000 that do not contain as much information. The purchase of the Wohlers Report every year is a no-brainer.”
Gilles Desharnais, Axis Prototypes Inc.

“The Wohlers Report is the world’s best compilation of activity in the field.”
Dr. David Bourell, University of Texas at Austin

“The wealth of information is astounding, but not as astounding as the amount of research that must be performed each year to put it together.”
Al Dean, Prototype Magazine (England)

“I found it extremely useful in the preparation of a presentation to upper management. Also, the report has caught the interest of many of my colleagues in R&D.”
Patrick Roth, Elkay Manufacturing Company

“His extremely comprehensive annual report is considered the definitive analysis of the rapid prototyping world and is highly recommended.”
David Cohn, Engineering Automation Report

“Nothing comes close to the authoritative and comprehensive nature of this annually-updated report. It has something for everybody and I highly recommend it.”
Jeffrey Rowe, MCADCafe.com

“The report was priceless in developing our business plan.”
Jason Epstein, Ionic Models

“I use it as a reference for any and all rapid prototyping questions I get that I cannot answer on my own. It is the most resourceful and complete publication we had ever seen.”
Kristopher Matson, St. Louis Community College

“I was in the market for a new machine for rapid prototyping and bought the report as an insurance policy. It definitely paid off.”
Kurt Blankemeyer, GTO

“The report offers the most up-to-date information that is available to us and it continues to improve each year.”
Ranji Vaidyanathan, Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.

“It’s a great, concise report that covers the globe. I don’t know of any other document that is as complete.”
Tom Greaves, New Directions Consulting

“You are providing a valuable service to the industry.”
Brent Ragsdale, Hallmark

“As always, you have done a spectacular job collecting information from around the world on our ever-changing industry. I commend you on the depth and breadth of your labors.”
Marina Hatsopoulos, founder of Z Corp.

“Very easy to read. It gave me just what I was looking for.”
Douglas Freitag, Bayside Materials Technology

“Whether one is thinking of purchasing a prototyping device, checking into the sales of a particular company for investment purposes, or just desiring more information, Wohlers’ report delivers at every level.”
Joe Greco, Desktop Engineering Magazine

“It is comprehensive, well organized, and well written. We will be pouring over the details for some time to come.”
Mike Rynerson, Ex One Corp.

“The report gave me the best and most concise view of the industry.”
Reagan Hogerty, Jordan Industries, Inc.

“The report has helped our company immensely in selling rapid prototyping and tooling internally to our design, manufacturing, and management staff.”
Glenn Anderson, Southco Inc.

“The section on rapid tooling is particularly interesting. Wohlers systematically looks at all the competing technologies on the market today and provides detailed information on how to best apply each of them.”
Engineering Automation Report

“I wonder if the industry knows how fortunate it is to have this mirror? Few industries of this size and complexity have access to this level of data.”
Ed Grenda, Castle Island Company

“The report has become a virtual “Bible” of rapid prototyping … comprehensive and well organized … and is highly recommended.”
David Cohn, Engineering Automation Report

“I’ve just finished reading through the report and I have to say I’m impressed with the shear quantity of information it contains. It has become the bible to those looking at rapid prototyping and related technologies.”
Al Dean, MCAD Magazine and the CADserver (England)

Learn more about ASTM and AM CoE

ASTM unites with the Wohlers brand to build on its market influence and access to top AM industry decision-makers worldwide.

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  • Prevent gaps and duplication of work in a dynamic, fast-paced technology space
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