Rapid Prototyping & Tooling State of the Industry:

1999 Worldwide Progress Report

Terry Wohlers

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • About the author
  • Focus of this report
  • Introduction to rapid prototyping and tooling

PART 1: BACKGROUND

  • History of RP systems
  • Industries being served
    • How RP models are being used
    • Installations by country
  • Applications
    • Communication
    • Engineering changes
    • Good ideas and powerful proposals
    • Concept models
    • Early input from suppliers, toolmakers
    • Prototypes and prototype tooling
    • Metal castings
    • Verifying CAD databases
    • Styling, ergonomic studies
    • Requesting quotes
    • Packaging and shipping
    • Critical to function

PART 2: INDUSTRY

  • A challenging time
  • Revenue growth
    • Secondary market
    • Revenues from products and services
    • Revenues from service bureaus
    • Other service revenues
  • Unit sales
    • Stratasys regains the lead
    • Systems sold by region in 1998
    • Cumulative systems sold by region
    • Units sold by U.S. manufacturers in 1998
    • Units sold by Japanese manufacturers in 1998
    • 1998 unit sales by manufacturer
    • Cumulative unit sales by manufacturer
    • Unit sales by vendor and year
  • Growth trends and sales forecasts
    • Unit sales growth percentages
    • Worldwide revenue estimates
    • Annual revenue growth percentages
    • Comparing growth of RP and machining markets
  • Service bureaus
    • Concentration of service bureaus
    • Mix of machines
    • Shrinking market
    • Investment casting patterns
    • Working with service bureaus
    • Times have changed
    • What is driving prices downward?
    • More challenges are ahead
    • Market saturation
    • Plynetics Express: What went wrong?

PART 3: TOOLING

  • Advanced approaches
  • Indirect approaches to tooling
    • Silicone rubber tooling
    • Aluminum-filled epoxy tooling
    • Spray metal tooling
    • RSP Tooling
    • Sprayform
    • Metal spray tooling from DTI
    • Cast kirksite tooling
    • 3D Keltool
    • Dynamic Tooling
    • ECOTOOL
    • ExpressTool
    • CEMCOM
    • PHAST
  • Direct approaches to tooling
    • Direct AIM tooling
    • SLS RapidTool
    • DMLS from EOS
    • ExtrudeHone
    • LENS
  • Other considerations
    • Machined tooling
    • Space Puzzle Molding
    • Prototype tooling selection guide
    • Size of tooling market

PART 4: SYSTEM MANUFACTURERS

  • 3D Systems
    • SLA-7000
    • ThermoJet
    • 3D Keltool
  • Aaroflex
  • Beijing Yinhua
  • Cubital
  • DTM
    • RapidTool
    • Growing list of materials
  • EOS
    • DirectTool products
    • Micro shot peening
  • Fockele & Schwarze
  • Helisys
  • Kinergy
  • Optomec
  • Sanders Prototype
    • New management
    • Developing technology
  • Schroff Development
    • Operating costs
    • Customers
  • Stratasys
    • Genisys Xs
    • Throughput
  • Z Corp.
    • Speed
    • Materials
  • Casualties
  • RP stocks
    • Disappointing earnings
    • Global economy
    • Small cap stocks out of favor

PART 5: JAPAN & EUROPE

  • Japan
    • Markets embracing RP
    • Unit sales growth
    • Japanese strategy
    • Developments and trends in Japan
    • New RP system that uses LEDs
    • Why has RP growth been slow?
    • Tooling and high-speed machining in Japan
  • Europe
    • EU support
    • United Kingdom
    • Germany
    • Fraunhofer activities
    • France
    • Scandinavia
    • The Netherlands
  • Other regions
    • South Africa
    • Canada
    • RP groups and associations

PART 6: RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

  • Development of system technology
    • MicroTEC
    • Directed Light Fabrication
    • Controlled Metal Buildup
    • Multi Jet Solidification
    • Topographic Shell Fabrication
    • MIT
    • Offset Fabrication
    • Micromod
    • University of Utah
  • U.S. government-sponsored R&D
    • NSF funding
    • DoD
  • RP academic programs
    • Hurdles and hindrances
    • Research activities
    • Beyond 2000

PART 7: CAD & COMPUTING

  • CAD/CAM/CAE
    • Advances in computing
    • Operating systems
    • Open systems
    • Growth of solid modeling
    • Interoperability and data translation
    • Product data management
    • Machining STL data
  • Software for RP
    • SolidView
    • Magics, Mimics
    • View Expert, 3Data Expert
    • 3D View
    • Rapid Prototyping Module
    • Velocity2
  • The Internet
    • Next day models
    • 3DQ Concepts
    • Caught by surprise

PART 8: OTHER DEVELOPMENTS

  • RP materials
    • Stereolithography resins
    • Materials for other RP processes
    • 3D printers
  • Medical modeling
    • Research areas in medical RP
    • RP is impacting the lives of patients
  • Reverse engineering
    • How the technology works
    • Laser digitizing systems
    • What works, what doesn't
    • Other advice

PART 9: WHERE IT'S ALL HEADED

  • Caught in the chasm
    • Technology adoption life cycle
    • CAD solid modeling as a gating factor
    • RP's past
    • RP's present state
    • What needs to happen
    • RP's future
  • What to do
    • Risks and land mines
    • 3D printing
    • Rapid manufacturing
    • Changes ahead
    • Will digital models replace physical prototypes?
    • Long-term outlook
  • The future
    • Systems of the future
    • Future applications
  • Where to learn more
    • Internet mail list
    • RPA/SME

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A: Glossary of terms
  • Appendix B: Addresses of RP system manufacturers
    • United States
    • Israel
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • Singapore
    • China
  • Appendix C: Rapid tooling technology developers
  • Appendix D: RP software companies
  • Appendix E: Material suppliers
  • Appendix F: U.S. RP systems
  • Appendix G: RP systems manufactured outside the U.S.
  • Appendix H: Materials
  • Appendix I: 3D digitizing systems