Wohlers Report

Wohlers Report 2015

3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing State of the Industry
Annual Worldwide Progress Report
ISBN 978-0-9913332-1-9

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Table of Contents

Preface: 20 years later Acknowledgments About the principal authors

PART 1: BACKGROUND

  • Focus of this report
  • Introduction to additive manufacturing and 3D printing
  • History of additive manufacturing
    • 1960s to the 1990s
    • May 2014 through March 2015
  • 20 years of annual surveys
    • Industries
    • Applications
    • Installations by country

PART 2: PROCESSES AND MATERIALS

  • Processes
    • Material extrusion
    • Material jetting
    • Binder jetting
    • Sheet lamination
    • Vat photopolymerization
    • Powder bed fusion
    • Directed energy deposition
  • Post-processing
    • General post-processing
    • Post-processing of metal AM parts
  • Materials
    • Plastics
    • Metals
    • Metal powders for AM
    • Composites and hybrid materials
    • Materials for metal casting processes
    • Ceramics and other materials
    • New materials
    • Materials testing and international standards
  • Process/material matrix

PART 3: SYSTEM MANUFACTURERS

  • Arburg
  • Arcam
  • Aspect
  • Asiga
  • Beijing Tiertime
  • BigRep
  • Blueprinter
  • Carima
  • Concept Laser
  • DWS
  • Envisiontec
  • EOS
  • ExOne
  • Fabrisonic
  • Hunan Farsoon
  • Lithoz
  • Mcor
  • Optomec
  • Prodways
  • ReaLizer
  • Renishaw
  • Sciaky
  • Sisma
  • SLM Solutions
  • Solidscape
  • Stratasys
  • Trumpf
  • 3D Systems
  • Voxeljet
  • Xery
  • Other companies in Asia
    • Beijing Long Yuan
    • CMET
    • D-MEC
    • Fochif Mechatronics
    • InssTek
    • Keyence
    • Matsuura
    • Microjet Technology
    • OPM Lab
    • Roland DG
    • Shaanxi Hengtong
    • Shanghai Union 3D Technology
    • Trump Precision Machinery
    • Wuhan Huake 3D Technology
    • Xi'an Bright Laser Technologies
  • Other companies in Europe and the U.S.
    • Autodesk
    • BeAM
    • DMG Mori Seiki
    • MarkForged
    • Nanoscribe
    • Rapid Shape
    • RPM Innovations3DCeram
    • Voxel8
  • Process/manufacturer maxtrix
  • Desktop 3D printers
    • RepRap project
    • AlibabaCrowdfunding
    • 3D-printed electronics
    • Material recycling
    • Software development
    • Amazon
    • MakerBot
    • Aleph Objects
    • FormlabsPrintrbot
    • Solidoodle
    • Ultimaker
    • XeryXYZprinting
    • Others 3D printers
    • Delta-type 3D printers
    • Comparing personal 3D printers

PART 4: INDUSTRY GROWTH

  • Revenue from AM worldwide
    • Products and services
    • Growth percentages
    • Average selling price
  • Material sales
    • Photopolymers
    • Laser-sintered polymers
    • Metals
  • Service provider market
    • Secondary market segment
  • Market opportunity and forecast
  • Industrial system unit sales
    • Unit sales growth percentages
    • Market shares
    • Systems sold by region
    • Metal AM systems
    • Unit sales by manufacturer and year
    • Forecast
  • Desktop 3D printers
  • Service providers
    • New types of AM service providers
    • Online marketplaces
    • Shapeways
    • Supplier competition
    • Consolidation
    • Survey results
    • Outlook
  • Growth of CAD solid modeling
  • Investor update
    • SLM Solutions and Materialise IPOs
    • Revenues and earnings
    • Outlook

PART 5: GLOBAL REPORTS

  • Africa
    • South Africa
    • Egypt
    • Other countries
  • Asia
    • China
    • India
    • Japan
    • Singapore
    • Taiwan
  • Australasia
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • Europe
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Italy
    • Netherlands
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Russia
    • Scandinavia
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • United Kingdom
  • Other regions
    • Brazil
    • Canada
    • Turkey

PART 6: DIRECT PART PRODUCTION

  • Advantages of AM for production
    • Reduction of tooling
    • Agile manufacturing operations
    • Decentralized manufacturing
    • Reduction in inventory and part consolidation
    • Lightweighting
    • Lattice structures
    • Improved fluid dynamics
  • Challenges
    • Cost of machines and materials
    • Speed and throughput
    • Cost justification
    • Traditional attitudes
    • Other requirements
  • Design for AM
    • Design guidelines
    • Education and training
  • Cost-benefit analyses
    • Cost-effective use case
    • Non cost-effective use case
    • Quantity-dependent use case
    • Product implications of non cost-effective use case
  • Metal AM part production
    • Quality and performance improvements
    • Cost improvements
    • Delivery and lead time improvements
  • Process monitoring in metal powder bed fusion
    • Requirements
    • Concept Laser
    • SLM Solutions
    • EOS
    • Other companies
    • Outlook

PART 7: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

  • Trends in R&D
  • Legal implications
  • Patents
  • Consortia and collaborations
    • America Makes
    • Government on Additive Manufacturing
    • Additive Manufacturing Consortium
    • Direct Manufacturing Research Center
    • ASTM International Committee F42
    • ISO/TC 261 on Additive Manufacturing
    • Project TEAM
  • U.S. government-sponsored R&D
    • National Science Foundation
    • Basic research on AM technology
    • Meso, micro, and nanoscale technology
    • National Institutes of Health
    • Department of Defense
    • America Makes
  • U.S. national laboratories
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  • Government-sponored R&D in Europe
  • Academic activities and capabilities
    • AM educational activities
    • Research innovations
    • Academic institutions with AM capabilities
    • Research institutes with AM capabilities
    • Future trends and contributions

PART 8: THE FUTURE OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

  • Emerging technologies
    • Low-cost laser sintering
    • Photopolymer systems going strong
    • Ceramic materials and systems
    • Printed electronics
    • Hybrid metal systems
    • HP Multi Jet Fusion
    • Other emerging technologies
    • Other materials
  • Emerging markets
    • Bioprinting
    • Aerospace
    • Space exploration
    • Tooling
    • Other markets
  • Emerging business models
    • Open-source and free resources
    • Maker spaces
    • 3D printing marketplaces and communities
    • New categories of AM service providers
    • 3D scanning and printing in retail
    • Established manufacturers and brands entering AM market
    • Unique collaborations
  • Summary

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A: Glossary of terms
  • Appendix B: System and material manufacturers
    • Austria
    • Canada
    • China
    • Denmark
    • France
    • Germany
    • Ireland
    • Israel
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • Korea
    • Netherlands
    • Norway
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Sweden
    • Taiwan
    • United Kingdom
    • United States
  • Appendix C: System specifications
  • Appendix D: Desktop 3D printers
  • Appendix E: Material properties
  • Appendix F: Direct metal AM comparison matrix
  • Appendix G: AM software tools
  • Appendix H: 3D scanning systems
  • Appendix I: 3D scan-processing software
  • Appendix J: Linked documents