Wohlers Report

Wohlers Report 2021

3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing State of the Industry
ISBN 978-0-9913332-7-1

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Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • About the principal authors
    • Associate authors

PART 1: INTRODUCTION

  • Focus of this report
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
    • Broad response from AM industry
    • Winners and losers
    • Near-term future
  • Introduction to AM and 3D printing
  • Myths and misconceptions
    • AM will replace conventional manufacturing
    • Complexity is free
    • AM is a "push button" process
    • Most AM systems are similar
    • Few materials are available for AM
    • Metal AM produces parts inexpensively
    • AM parts are inferior to conventional parts
    • Every home will have a 3D printer
  • History of additive manufacturing
    • 1960s to the modern era
    • March 2020 to March 2021
  • Applications
    • Survey approach and respondents
    • Putting AM to work
  • Industries
    • Automotive
    • Consumer products
    • Aerospace
    • Medical
    • Dentistry
    • Academic institutions
    • Power and energy
    • Government and military
    • Architecture and construction
    • Additional industries

PART 2: MATERIALS AND PROCESSES

  • Processes
    • Material extrusion
    • Vat photopolymerization
    • Powder bed fusion
    • Material jetting
    • Binder jetting
    • Directed energy deposition
    • Sheet lamination
  • Materials
    • Polymers
    • Graphene and other nanomaterials
    • New polymer products
    • Polymer pricing
    • Metals
    • New powders for metal AM
    • Producing powders for metal AM
    • Water-atomized metal powders
    • Metal powder pricing
    • Composites and hybrid materials
    • Materials for metal-casting processes
    • Ceramics and other materials
  • Third-party material producers
    • Open vs. closed material business models
    • Third-party producers
    • Process/material matrix
  • Materials database
    • Materials by process
    • Material producers and products
    • Material properties

PART 3: INDUSTRY GROWTH

  • Revenue from AM worldwide
    • Products and services
    • Growth percentages
  • System manufacturers
    • Unit sales
    • Unit sales growth percentages
    • Market shares
    • Systems sold by region
    • Average selling price
    • Metal AM systems
    • Unit sales by manufacturer and year
  • Desktop 3D printers
    • Sales growth
    • Under $500 3D printers
  • AM material sales
    • Photopolymers
    • Polymer powders
    • Filaments
    • Metals
  • Service providers
    • Primary service market
    • Service provider survey
    • Contributing service providers
    • Survey results
    • Pre- and post-processing
    • Most profitable AM processes
    • Most profitable material
    • Revenue growth
    • Online marketplaces
    • Supplier competition
    • Comments from service providers
  • Investment in publicly traded companies
    • Revenues and earnings
    • On the horizon
  • Corporate Investments
  • CAD solid modeling

PART 4: FINAL PART PRODUCTION

  • Benefits of AM for production
    • Reduction of tooling
    • Reduced lead time and on-demand manufacturing
    • Reduced inventory and part consolidation
    • Sustainability and waste reduction
    • Custom product manufacturing
    • Generative design and biomimicry
    • Optimized structures
    • Concept modeling to production
  • Design for additive manufacturing
    • Consolidating parts
    • Support material and post-processing optimization
    • Lightweighting and topology optimization
    • Complex lattice structures
    • Improved fluid flow, conformal cooling, and efficiency
    • Economic benefits of DfAM
    • Calculating part cost and factors impacting it
  • Software for AM
    • 3D scan-processing
    • Design and optimization
    • Repair
    • Simulation
    • Slicing and print preparation
    • Print management
    • Manufacturing execution systems
    • Security
  • Process monitoring of metal powder bed fusion
    • Aconity3D
    • Addiguru
    • AddUp
    • EOS
    • GE Additive
    • Layer Metrics
    • Open Additive
    • Renishaw
    • Sigma Labs
    • SLM Solutions
    • Velo3D
    • Outlook
  • Post-processing
    • Post-processing polymer parts
    • Surface treatment of polymer parts
    • Post-processing metal parts
    • Thermal processing of metal parts
    • Metal support material removal
    • Metal surface treatment
    • Post-process automation
    • AM part inspection



  • Cost and challenges
    • Operating costs
    • Cost justification
    • Machine throughput
    • Metal part production cost considerations
    • Qualification and quality
    • Educating designers

PART 5: GLOBAL REPORTS

  • Installations by country
  • Africa
    • South Africa
  • Asia/Pacific
    • China
    • India
    • Japan
    • Korea
    • Singapore
    • Taiwan
  • Australasia
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • Europe
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Denmark
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Hungary
    • Italy
    • Netherlands
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Russia
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Turkey
    • United Kingdom
  • Middle East
    • Iran
    • Israel
  • Other regions
    • Brazil
    • Canada
    • United States

PART 6: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

  • Trends
  • Patents
    • Patent litigation
  • Consortia and collaborations
    • America Makes
    • Fraunhofer AM alliance
    • Women in 3D Printing
    • Partnerships
  • AM standards
    • ASTM Committee F42
    • ISO/TC 261
  • AM Activities at NASA
  • AM in the U.S. Department of Defense
  • U.S. government-sponsored R&D
    • National Science Foundation
    • DOD, DOE, and DOC
    • National Institutes of Health
  • U.S. national laboratories
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    • Sandia National Laboratories
  • Government-sponsored R&D in Europe
  • Academic activities and capabilities
    • Research innovations
    • The Americas
    • Asia/Pacific
    • Europe, Middle East, and Africa
    • Research institutes with AM capabilities
    • Research trends

PART 7: THE FUTURE OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

  • COVID-19 shapes AM's future
  • Trechnical directions and trends
    • Feedstock development
    • Automotive and aerospace adoption
    • Spare parts
    • Marine activity
    • Environmental impact
  • Applications of the future
    • 3D-printed electronics
    • 3D-printed medicine
    • 3D-printed food
  • Landscape of AM startups
  • Startups and early-stage investments
    • Public offerings and acquisitions
  • New AM companies
  • Market forecast and opportunity
  • Summary

Part 8: SYSTEM MANUFACTURERS

  • Asia/Pacific
    • Aspect
    • Bright Laser Technologies
    • Eplus 3D
    • Farsoon
    • Mimaki
    • UnionTech
    • XYZprinting
    • ZRapid
  • Germany
    • Arburg
    • BigRep
    • DMG Mori
    • Envisiontec
    • EOS
    • SLM Solutions
    • Trumpf
    • Voxeljet
  • Other companies in Europe and the Middle East
    • Additive Industries
    • AddUp
    • Admatec
    • BeAM
    • Digital Metal
    • DWS
    • Lithoz
    • Prodways
    • Renishaw
    • Sinterit
    • Sisma
    • Stratasys
    • XJet
  • U.S.
    • 3D Systems
    • Carbon
    • Cincinnati
    • Coherent
    • Desktop Metal
    • ExOne
    • Formlabs
    • GE Additive
    • HP
    • Markforged
    • Optomec
  • Manufacturer, process, and material matrix
  • Additional system manufacturers

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A: Glossary of terms
  • Appendix B: 1988-2006 unit sales
  • Appendix C: Metal AM comparison matrix
  • Appendix D: 3D scanning systems